Īćėąāėåķčå

źīķņąźņķūé ņåėåōīķ 0772 66 07 68

e-mail: referatkg@mail.ru





Āāåäåķčå.............................................................................................................. 1

1 ćėąāą. Ī źīģģóķčźąņčāķīé ķąļšąāėåķķīńņč óšīźīā šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą ā ķą÷ąėüķīé ųźīėå............................................................................................................................. 3

§1. Ó÷åįķī-šå÷åāūå ńčņóąöčč ķą óšīźå šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą.............................. 17

§2. Ļńčõīėīćč÷åńźčå īńķīāū ńīēäąķč’ ó÷åįķī-šå÷åāūõ ńčņóąöčé............. 29

§3. Ąķąėčē ó÷åįķī-ģåņīäč÷åńźčõ ļīńīįčé, čńļīėüēóåģūõ ā ųźīėå........... 40

2 ćėąāą Īņįīš ó÷åįķī-šå÷åāūõ ńčņóąöčé........................................................ 52

§1. Ńīēäąķčå ó÷åįķī-šå÷åāūõ ńčņóąöčé ķą óšīźąõ šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą ā ķą÷ąėüķīé ųźīėå........................................................................................................................ 52

§2. Īįīńķīāąķčå ńčńņåģū ó÷åįķī-šå÷åāūõ ńčņóąöčé................................... 67

Ēąźėž÷åķčå........................................................................................................ 77

Įčįėčīćšąōč’................................................................................................... 79

Ļščėīęåķč’ 



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-1




TABLE OF CONTENTS

1. INTRODUCTION

2. CHAPTER 1 THE ECONOMIC VIEWPOINTS OF ASKAR AKAYEV

1.1 Privatization

1.2 National Money “Som”………

1.3 Investment 

1.4 Production

1.5 International Trade

1.6 Perception of poverty

3. CHAPTER 2 THE ADAPTATION TO TRANSITION ECONOMY ACCORDING TO ASKAR AKAYEV

2.1 Privatization all around the country

2.2 The Role of the National Currency

2.3 Investment in the country

2.3.1 Foreign direct investment in the country

2.4 Development of industrial production

2.5 The benefits of international trade to our country

2.5.1 Foreign economic relations and development of exports

2.5.2 Foreign Trade

2.5.3 Trade with Americas

2.6 Poverty Reduction Strategy

4. CHAPTER 3 THE EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATIONS

3.1CDF Annuals

3.1.1 Strategies and Principles

3.2 Conclusion

5. REFERENCES

6. ABREVIATIONS

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700- 2


Ļėąķ



Āāåäåķčå................................................................................................ 3

Ćėąāą I. Ņåīšåņč÷åńźčå īńķīāū ćėąćīėüķīé źąņåćīščč āšåģåķč

ā šóńńźīģ č ÷åųńźīģ ’ēūźąõ ............................................................... 7

1.1. Ļīķ’ņčå, ńółķīńņü ćėąćīėüķīé źąņåćīščč āšåģåķč. Īįłą’ õąšąźņåščńņčźą. 7

1.2. Ņåīšåņč÷åńźč ąńļåźņū čēó÷åķč’ ćėąćīėüķīé źąņåćīščč āšåģåķč. 13



Ćėąāą II. Ēķą÷åķčå ćėąćīėüķūõ źąņåćīščé āšåģåķč ā šóńńźīģ č

÷åųńźčé ’ēūź ........................................................................................ 18

2.1. Ēķą÷åķčå ōīšģū ķąńņī’łåćī āšåģåķč. ........................................ 18

2.2. Ēķą÷åķčå ōīšģ ļšīųåäųåćī āšåģåķč .......................................... 35

2.3. Ēķą÷åķčå ōīšģ įóäółåćī āšåģåķč ............................................... 42



Ēąźėž÷åķčå ......................................................................................... 45

Zaver ..................................................................................................... 48

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķūé ėčņåšąņóšū ............................................. 49

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Content



Introduction



Chapter I The nature and techniques of translation

Some Recent Theories On Translation

Types of Translation

Techniques and Methods of Translation


źīķņąźņķūé ņåėåōīķ 0772 66 07 68

e-mail: referatkg@mail.ru




Chapter II Peculiarities of Sociopolitical Translation



1. Translation of Political literature and terms

2. Grammatical peculiarities of sociopolitical translation

3. Lexical peculiarities of sociopolitical translation

4. Stylistic peculiarities of sociopolitical translation



Conclusion

Bibliography

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-4


The contents



Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..



Chapter I The Renaissance period in the English Literature …………………………



1.1. The Renaissance - epoch of great discoveries ………….



1.2. W. Shakespeare’s works …………………………………………..



1.3. W. Shakespeare’s sonnets - masterpiece…………………………………………. .



Chapter II The theory of translation ……………………………



2.1. The meaning of “translation”



2.2. Linguistic method of research – a comparative analyses



Chapter III The comparative analysis of the sonnets ………………………………..



3.1. The history of Shakespeare’s sonnets in Russian interpritation



3.2. Mature Marshak – the poet of Pushkin’s schools



3.3. Sonnets eyes of the Russian translators: Brusov, Marshak, Lihachev,Mamun, Sluchevsky…………………………………………………………….



3.4. The figurative circuit of translations Shakespeare's sonnets………………





Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………...



Bibliography ………………………………………………………………………

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Inhalt:



Einleitung 2

I. Die Neologismen und die lexikalische Innovationen 5

1.1. Die Arten der Neologismen 10

1.1.1. Die eigentlichen Neologismen 11

1.1.2. Neubildungen 17

1.1.3. Die semantischen Neologismen 18



II. Etymologische Charakteristik von Neologismen 23

2.1.Die Buchwörter - Europäismen 25

2.2. Eksotismen 29

2.3. Der Wortschatz, der auf die internationall – politischen Probleme orientiert

ist 32

2.4. Ökologie 35

2.5. Der Wortschatz, der auf die neuen Realien der BRD orientiert ist 38



III. Angloamerikanismen 41

3.1. Angloamerikanismen im Wortschatz der Wirtschaft 44

3.2. Wirtschaftanglizismen als Bildempfänger in Komposita – Metapher 45

3.3. Wirtschaftsanglizismen als Bildempfänger in Textmetaphern 51

3.4. Wirtschaftsanglizismen als Bildspender in Komposita – Metaphern 53

3.5. Wirtschaftsanglizismen als Bildspender in Text – Metaphern 55

3.6. Metaphorische Verwendung oder Bedeutungserweiterung? 58



Schlußfolgerung 65

Literaturverzeichnis 69

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Contents:





Introduction…………………………………………………………………….3



Chapter ¹ 1

Scientific basis of semantic correspondences in translation……………………..5



1.1 The linguistic ways of meaning-based translation…………………….5

1.2 Transference of pragmatic meaning…………………………………...13

1.3 Pragmatic aspect of translation………………………………………...15

1.4 Context and situation in translation……………………………………20



Chapter ¹ 2

Transformations in translation……………………………………………………23

2.1 Transpositions………………………………………………………….23

2.2 Replacements…………………………………………………………..26

2.3 Additions……………………………………………………………….49

2.4 Omissions………………………………………………………………53



Conclusion………………………………………………………………………..56



Bibliography……………………………………………………………………...58

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Introduction ……………………………………………………….3



Chapter I The Theoretical observation of translation aspects.

1.1 Translation and the history of translation…………………...7

1.2 The aspects of translation theory…………………….……...9

1.3 The classification of translation………………………...…..21



Chapter II The socio-political text and analysis of translation.

2.1 Stylistic devices in the socio-political text…………………..26

2.2 The socio-political vocabulary………………………………44



Conclusion………………………………………………………….51

Appendix…………………………………………………………...53

List of the literature………………………………….……...……...62

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The contents



Introduction ……………………………………………………………………..



Chapter I The Renaissance period in the English Literature …………………………



1.4. The Renaissance - epoch of great discoveries ………….



1.5. W. Shakespeare’s works …………………………………………..



1.6. W. Shakespeare’s sonnets - masterpiece…………………………………………. .



Chapter II The theory of translation ……………………………



2.3. The meaning of “translation”



2.4. Linguistic method of research – a comparative analyses



Chapter III The comparative analysis of the sonnets ………………………………..



3.1. The history of Shakespeare’s sonnets in Russian interpritation



3.5. Mature Marshak – the poet of Pushkin’s schools



3.6. Sonnets eyes of the Russian translators: Brusov, Marshak, Lihachev,Mamun, Sluchevsky…………………………………………………………….



3.7. The figurative circuit of translations Shakespeare's sonnets………………





Conclusion ………………………………………………………………………...

Bibliography …………………………………………… 

ČĢß ŌĄÉĖĄ 2700-9








źīķņąźņķūé ņåėåōīķ 0772 66 07 68

e-mail: referatkg@mail.ru



Contents:





1 Introduction…………………………………………………………………………….2

a) Actuality

b) The aim

c) Tasks

d) The theoretical value

e) The practical value

f) Method of investigation

j) The structure of the diploma work

Chapter I The theoretical observation

1. Word building………………………………………………………………….5

a) affixation……………………………………………………………………….6

b) semantic of affixation………………………………………………………….8

c) conversation…………………………………………………………………...11

d) composition…………………………………………………………………...15

e) shortening……………………………………………………………………...23

f) sound imitation………………………………………………………………...24

j) back formation…………………………………………………………………25

2 Terminology

Chapter II Structural and semantic analysis of computer terms

Part 1: Structural analysis of computer terms

Part 2: Semantic analysis of computer terms.

Conclusion

Bibliography

Appendix 

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Contents





Introduction



Chapter I Theoretical observation of the phraseological units

1.1 Phraseological units, semi-fixed combinations and free phrases

1.2 Syntactical and morphological divisibility of phraseological units

1.3 Structural classification of phraseological units

1.4 Proverbs and sayings





Chapter II Problems of translation of phraseological units

2.1 What is“translation

2.2 Kinds of translation

2.3 The general problems of translation



Conclusion

Bibliography

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-11










Introduction..................................................................................................................... 3



chapter I. Contemporary syllable study issues



§1. The main syllable theories in linguistics..................................................................... 6

§2. Definition of syllable................................................................................................... 16



chapter II. The syllable structure of words in the English and Russian languages



§1. Distribution of phonemes in the English and Russian languages............................... 20

§2. Syllable division and syllable formation in the English and Russian languages....... 44

§3. Types of syllable in the English and Russian languages............................................ 64

§4. Number of syllables in words in the English and Russian languages......................... 74



Conclusion........................................................................................................................... 79



Bibliography....................................................................................................................... 80

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The Content:





Introduction……………………………………………………………2 - 4 p.





Chapter I

1.1 The notion of translation………………………………………………5 -16 p.



1.2 The main types of translation………………………………………...17-20 p.



1.3 The main problems of translation……………………………………21-38 p.









Chapter II

2.1 Problems of phraseological units’ translation……………………...39-43 p.



2.2 Translation of idioms…………………………………………………...44-63 p.



2.3 Translation of proverbs………………………………………………...64 -71p.





Conclusion……………………………………………………………...72 -73 p.



Bibliography…………………………………………………………..74-76 p.

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Content

Introduction……………………………………………………………..1

Chapter  I………………………………………………………………..3

           1.1 The notion “translation”………………………………….3

           1.2 Types of translation………………………………………10

           1.3 The general problems of                                                                                  translation:……………………. 16

                   a) lexical problems…………………………………. 19

      b) grammatical problems…………………………… 23

                   c) stylistic problems………………………………...  32

Chapter  I……………………………………………………………... 38

           2.1 Equivalence in translation………………………………   38

           2.2 Types of equivalence……………………………………. 43

           2.3 Transformation in the process of translation:…………….49

                 a)  Transposition……………………………………  49

b) Replacement……………………………………   51

c) Addition…………………………………………  58

d) Omission………………………………………… 59

           2.4 Translation of functional styles:

a) The language of belles – letters………………. 61



b) The language of publicists literature…………… 65



c) The language of newspapers…………………… 69



d) The language of scientific prose………………… 73



e) The language of official documents…………… 76

Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 80

Bibliography……………………………………………………………84

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Contents



Introduction__________________________________________________________p. 3-6

Chapter I

1) What is translation?_____________________________________________p. 7-11

2) General problems of translation: stylistic, grammatical and lexical______p. 12-28



Chapter II

1) Types of translation_____________________________________________p. 29-44

2) Types of translation according to genre of translated materials_________p. 45-51

3) Consecutive and simultaneous translations__________________________p. 52-57



Conclusion___________________________________________________________p. 58-60

Bibliography_________________________________________________________p. 61-63

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-16


Structural and semantic analysis of computer terms.



Contents

1 Introduction

a) Actuality

b) The aim

c) Tasks

d) The theoretical value

e) The practical value

f) Method of investigation

j) The structure of the diploma work

Chapter I The theoretical observation

a) Word building

b) Terminology

Chapter II Structural and semantic analysis of computer terms

Part 1: Structural analysis of computer terms,

Part 2: Semantic analysis of computer terms.

Conclusion

Bibliography

Appendix 

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Table of contents:





Introduction …………………………………………..2-7 p.



Chapter 1



1. Theory of translation ………………………………11-14 š.



2. Main types of translation …………………….14-18 š.



3. Techniques of translation …………………….18-27š.



Chapter 2



Lexical problems of translation ……………………….27-49 š.



Grammatical problems of translation …………………49-58 p.



Stylistic problems of translation …………………………59-64 p.





Conclusion ……………………………………………….65-67 š.





Bibliography ……………………………………………68-69 š.



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-18




Īćėąāėåķčå



I. Āāåäåķčå 2

II. §1. Īįšąē Ļåņšą I ā ēåšźąėå šóńńźīé źėąńńč÷åńźīé ėčņåšąņóšū 7



III. §2. Īįšąē Ļåņšą ā īńģūńėåķčč ļčńąņåė’ XX āåźą. 20

IV. Ēąźėž÷åķčå 48

V. Ńļčńźą čńļīėüēóåģīé ėčņåšąņóšū 53

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-19


Contents.

Introduction. …………………………………………………………………………………...2



I. The Classification of Modality in Modal System.

Propositional Modality…………………………………………………………………..4

a) Epistemic Modality………………………………………………………………………..4

b) Evidential Modality……………………………………………………………………….5

c) Declaratives………………………………………………………………………………..5

2.1 Event Modality

a) Deontic Modality

b) Modifications

c) Dynamic Modality………………………………………………………………………7

2.2 Modal System and its features……………………………………………………….….7

2.3 Possibility, Necessity and Negation in English…………………………………………8

2.4 Modal Verbs in English…………………………………………………………………8

Can……………………………………………………………………………………...10

May……………………………………………………………………………………..15

Can-May Compared…………………………………………………………………….16

Must ……………………………………………………………………………………19

Must-May Compared…………………………………………………………………...22

To Have…………………………………………………………………………………23

To be……………………………………………………………………………………24

Must, to Have, to Be Compared……………………………………………………...…25

Ought……………………………………………………………………………………27

Shall/ Should……………………………………………………………………….…...28

Must, Should, Ought Compared………………………………………………………...32

Will/ Would………………………………………………………………………….….33

Need………………………………………………………………………………….….36

Dare……………………………………………………………………………………...37



II. Modal System and other Categories

1.2 Mood……………………………………………………………………………………..37

2.2 Future…………………………………………………………………………………….38

3.2 Mood System and its Subcategories……………………………………………………..38

4.2 System of Realis and Irrealis…………………………………………………………..39



III. Forms expressing Unreality……………………………………………………………40

6.2 Structurally dependent Use of Forms expressing Unreality

7.2 The Use of Forms Expressing Unreality in Object Clauses……………………………44

8.2 The Use of Forms Expressing Unreality in Appositive and Predicative Clauses………..47

9.2 The Use of Forms Expressing Unreality in Adverbial Clauses

of Purpose, Comparison and Condition……………………………………………….47

10.2 The Use of Form Expressing Unreality in Complex Sentences

with Adverbial clauses of Concession………………………………………………..50

11.2 The Use of ors Expressing Unreality in a Special type of Exclamatory Sentences…..50

12.2 Free Use of Forms Expressing Unreality……………………………………………..51

13.2 Traditional Use of Forms Expressing Unreality……………………………………...53



Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………………….55

Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………………..58

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-20


Ńīäåšęąķčå

Āāåäåķčå ……………………………………………………………………… 2-5

I. Īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāīäą ’ēūźą ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé ėčņåšąņóšū

I.1. Ņåšģčķīėīćč’. Āīļšīńū ņåšģčķīėīćčč č āūįīšą ńėīā ļšč ļåšåāīäå 6-12

I.1.2. Ńėīāīńėīęåķčå ņåõķč÷åńźīćī ņåźńņą 13-15

I.1.3. Čķņåšķąöčīķąėčēąöč’ ņåšģčķīėīćčč ā ņåõķčźå 16-17 

I.1.4. Šīėü ļåšåāīä÷čźą ā šąēšąįīņźå ņåšģčķīėīćčč 18-20 

I.2. Šąįīņą ńī ńėīāąšåģ ļšč ļåšåāīäå ķą šóńńźčé ’ēūź 21-24

I.3. Ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčå īįīšīņū 25-29

I.4. Ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčå īńīįåķķīńņč 30-35

I.5. Ńīźšąłåķč’ 36-37

I.6. Ņåõķč÷åńźą’ äīźóģåķņąöč’ č šåźėąģą 38

I.7. Ķåźīņīšūå īńīįåķķīńņč ńņčė’ ļšč ļåšåāīäå ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé

ėčņåšąņóšū 39-48.

II.2. Āīėīźķą čē šåņīšņū (čē źķčćč «Chemie ist Trumpf») 49-50

II. Īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāīäą ķåźīņīšūõ ņåźńņīā ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé ėčņåšąņóšū

II.1. Ėąóõõąģģåš-Ščēą ( čē ęóšķąėą “Energietechnik”-96 ) 51-52

II.3. Ļėąńņģąńńū, ļščģåķ’åģūå ķąčįīėåå ÷ąńņī ā ļšīčēāīäńņāå 

(čē ģīķīćšąōčč «Kunststoffe fur Industrie und Handwerk») 53-54

III. Ēąźėž÷åķčå 55-56

IV. Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū 57-58



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ŃĪÄÅŠĘĄĶČÅ



Āāåäåķč充………………………………………………………2

1. Čńņīšč’ ōīšģčšīāąķč’ šóńńźīćī č įīėćąšńźīćī ’ēūźīā…………………………………………………………..…6

1.1. Ńņąšīńėąā’ķńźčé ’ēūź źąź ėčņåšąņóšķūé ’ēūź āńåćī 

ńėąā’ķńźīćī ģčšą………………………………………………8



1.2. Šīėü ńīļīńņąāčņåėüķūõ čńńėåäīāąķčé ā ’ēūźīēķąķčč..10

.

Ļīķ’ņčå ņåģąņč÷åńźīé ćšóļļū ā ėåźńčźå…………..11





2. Ńšąāķčņåėüķūé ąķąėčē ķąēāąķčé šīäńņāą ó šóńńźčõ č įīėćąš.......................................................................................14 

2.1. Ļīźīėåķčå įąįóųåź č äåäóųåź…………………..14

2.2. Ļīźīėåķčå šīäčņåėå酅…………………….........15

2.3. Ģīø ļīźīėåķč充…………………………..……...23

2.4. Ļīźīėåķčå äåņå酅…………………………..……28

2.5. Ļīźīėåķčå āķóźīā………………………………..….31

2.6. Ķąēāąķč’ šīäńņāåķķčźīā ļī ńāīéńņā󅅅..…32

2.6.1. Ķąēāąķč’ šīäčņåėåé ńóļšóćīā………………....33

2.6.2. Ķąēāąķč’ šīäńņāåķķčźīā ļī ńāīéńņā󅅅..34

2.6.3. Ķąēāąķč’ īįīžäķīćī šīäńņāą ļī ńāīéńņāó….38

2.7. Ķąēāąķč’ ŹÓĢ č ŹÓĢĄ……………………………...40

Ēąźėž÷åķč充………………………………………………….44

Ļščėīęåķč’………………………………………………………46

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēóåģīé ėčņåšąņóšū…………………………………50

Ąāņīšåōåšąņ…………………………………………………………….52

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700- 22


TABLE OF CONTENTS

3. INTRODUCTION

4. CHAPTER 1 THE ECONOMIC VIEWPOINTS OF ASKAR AKAYEV

1.1Privatization……….…..…………….………………………...........................…….7

1.2 National Money “Som”……… …...……...………………………………….…...8

1.3 Investment ……………………...…….……..........................................................9

1.4 Production ………...………….….....….………..…………………………..…..10

1.5 International Trade ………………………..…........................................................11

1.6 Perception of poverty …………..……………..…………………………….....…..12

3. CHAPTER 2 THE ADAPTATION TO TRANSITION ECONOMY ACCORDING TO ASKAR AKAYEV

2.1 Privatization all around the country……………….…………………….…..14

2.2 The Role of the National Currency..................................…………………...16

2.3 Investment in the country ……………...………………………...…..…….18

2.3.1 Foreign direct investment in the country ……..…………………..……….22

2.4 Development of industrial production.…….…….….………………..….......24

2.5 The benefits of international trade to our country ……………….………...28

2.5.1 Foreign economic relations and development of exports……….....................28

2.5.2 Foreign Trade .......………………….........…………..…………………….....31

2.5.3 Trade with Americas ……………………………………............................33

2.6 Poverty Reduction Strategy …………,,,,,,………… .........................................34

4. CHAPTER 3 THE EVALUATION OF THE APPLICATIONS

3.1CDF Annuals …………………………………………………………………….37

3.1.1 Strategies and Principles…………………………………………………….…39

3.2 Conclusion ………………………..….…..……….…..………………………..41

5. REFERENCES

6. ABREVIATIONS

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-23


Ļėąķ



Āāåäåķčå................................................................................................ 3

Ćėąāą I. Ņåīšåņč÷åńźčå īńķīāū ćėąćīėüķīé źąņåćīščč āšåģåķč

ā šóńńźīģ č ÷åųńźīģ ’ēūźąõ ............................................................... 7

1.1. Ļīķ’ņčå, ńółķīńņü ćėąćīėüķīé źąņåćīščč āšåģåķč. Īįłą’ õąšąźņåščńņčźą. 7

1.2. Ņåīšåņč÷åńźč ąńļåźņū čēó÷åķč’ ćėąćīėüķīé źąņåćīščč āšåģåķč. 13



Ćėąāą II. Ēķą÷åķčå ćėąćīėüķūõ źąņåćīščé āšåģåķč ā šóńńźīģ č

÷åųńźčé ’ēūź ........................................................................................ 18

2.1. Ēķą÷åķčå ōīšģū ķąńņī’łåćī āšåģåķč. ........................................ 18

2.2. Ēķą÷åķčå ōīšģ ļšīųåäųåćī āšåģåķč .......................................... 35

2.3. Ēķą÷åķčå ōīšģ įóäółåćī āšåģåķč ............................................... 42



Ēąźėž÷åķčå ......................................................................................... 45

Zaver ..................................................................................................... 48

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķūé ėčņåšąņóšū ............................................. 49

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-24




ŃĪÄÅŠĘĄĶČÅ:



Āāåäåķč充………………………………………………………………..3



Ćėąāą I. Ļīķ’ņčå ī šå÷åāīģ żņčźåņå.



1.1 Żņčźåņ č åćī ēķą÷åķčå äė’ īįłåńņāą..........…………….......................10

1.2 Ķąöčīķąėüķūå īņėč÷č’ šå÷åāūõ żņčźåņīā ā šąēķūõ ńņšąķąõ…….......…12

1.3 Šå÷åāīé żņčźåņ, źąź ļšåäģåņ ėčķćāčńņč÷åńźīćī čēó÷åķč’.……….…….13

1.4 Īįėąńņü ļščģåķåķč’ šå÷åāīćī żņčźåņą. Ńōåšą óļīņšåįėåķč’ åćī åäčķčö...........................................................................................................

1.5 Ōóķźöčč šå÷åāīćī żņčźåņą………...............................................…...14

1.6 Ńčņóąöčč šå÷åāīćī żņčźåņą............................................................................56





Ćėąāą II. Ńīļīńņąāčņåėüķūé ąķąėčē šóńńźīćī, ļīėüńźīćī č źūšćūēńźīćī šå÷åāīćī żņčźåņą.



2.1 Óļīņšåįėåķčå ōīšģóė šå÷åāīćī żņčźåņą ā šóńńźīģ, ļīėüńźīģ č źčšćčēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ. Ąńļåźņ ńīöčīėčķćāčńņčźč..................................................34

2.2 Ōóķźöčč īįšąłåķč’...........................................………………………..…19

2.3 Īįšąłåķčå ā ļīėüńźīģ, šóńńźīģ č źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ..............................67









Ēąźėž÷åķčå.………………………………………………………………..47

ąķåźń

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū……...…………………………..50

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-25



Contents:





Introduction…………………………………………………………………….3



Chapter ¹ 1

Scientific basis of semantic correspondences in translation……………………..5



1.1 The linguistic ways of meaning-based translation…………………….5

1.2 Transference of pragmatic meaning…………………………………...13

1.3 Pragmatic aspect of translation………………………………………...15

1.4 Context and situation in translation……………………………………20



Chapter ¹ 2

Transformations in translation……………………………………………………23

2.1 Transpositions………………………………………………………….23

2.2 Replacements…………………………………………………………..26

2.3 Additions……………………………………………………………….49

2.4 Omissions………………………………………………………………53



Conclusion………………………………………………………………………..56

Bibliography……………………………………………………………………...58

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-26




Contents





Introduction



Chapter I 



Theoretical observation of the phraseological units…………………………..4p.



Phraseological units, semi-fixed combinations and free phrases……………..6p.



Similarity and difference between phraseological units and a word………....11p.



Syntactical and morphological divisibility of phraseological units………………………………………………………………………….13p.



Structural classification of phraseological units……………………………..15p.



Features enhancing unity and stability of phraseological units……………...18p.



Various approaches to the study of phraseological units and the problems of classidication………………………………………………………………...21p.



Proverbs and sayings………………………………………………………...30p.





Chapter II



Problems of translation of phraseological units………..................................35p.



What is “translation”?......................................................................................37p.



Kinds of translation………………………………………………………….40p.



The general problems of translation…………………………………………45p.



Translation of proverbs………………………………………………………56p.



Conclusion…………………………………………………………..............60p.



Bibliography………………………………………………………………65p.



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-27



Contents









Introduction..................................................................................................................... 3



chapter I. Contemporary syllable study issues



§1. The main syllable theories in linguistics..................................................................... 6

§2. Definition of syllable................................................................................................... 16



chapter II. The syllable structure of words in the English and Russian languages



§1. Distribution of phonemes in the English and Russian languages............................... 20

§2. Syllable division and syllable formation in the English and Russian languages....... 44

§3. Types of syllable in the English and Russian languages............................................ 64

§4. Number of syllables in words in the English and Russian languages......................... 74



Conclusion........................................................................................................................... 79



Bibliography....................................................................................................................... 80



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-28




The Content:





Introduction……………………………………………………………2 - 4 p.





Chapter I

1.1 The notion of translation………………………………………………5 -16 p.



1.2 The main types of translation………………………………………...17-20 p.



1.3 The main problems of translation……………………………………21-38 p.









Chapter II

2.1 Problems of phraseological units’ translation……………………...39-43 p.



2.2 Translation of idioms…………………………………………………...44-63 p.



2.3 Translation of proverbs………………………………………………...64 -71p.





Conclusion……………………………………………………………...72 -73 p.



 

Bibliography…………………………………………………………..74-76 p.

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-29




Content

Introduction……………………………………………………………..1

Chapter  I………………………………………………………………..3

           1.1 The notion “translation”………………………………….3

           1.2 Types of translation………………………………………10

           1.3 The general problems of translation:……………………. 16

                   a) lexical problems…………………………………. 19

      b) grammatical problems…………………………… 23

                   c) stylistic problems………………………………...  32

Chapter  I……………………………………………………………... 38

           2.1 Equivalence in translation………………………………   38

           2.2 Types of equivalence……………………………………. 43

           2.3 Transformation in the process of translation:…………….49

                 a)  Transposition……………………………………  49

e) Replacement……………………………………   51

f) Addition…………………………………………  58

g) Omission………………………………………… 59

           2.4 Translation of functional styles:

f) The language of belles – letters………………. 61



g) The language of publicists literature…………… 65



h) The language of newspapers…………………… 69



i) The language of scientific prose………………… 73



j) The language of official documents…………… 76

 

Conclusion…………………………………………………………… 80

Bibliography……………………………………………………………84

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-30



 

Structural and semantic analysis of computer terms.



Contents

1 Introduction

a) Actuality

b) The aim

c) Tasks

d) The theoretical value

e) The practical value

f) Method of investigation

j) The structure of the diploma work

Chapter I The theoretical observation

a) Word building

b) Terminology

Chapter II Structural and semantic analysis of computer terms

Part 1: Structural analysis of computer terms,

Part 2: Semantic analysis of computer terms.

Conclusion

Bibliography

Appendix 

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-31






Table of contents:





Introduction …………………………………………..2-7 p.



Chapter 1



1. Theory of translation ………………………………11-14 š.



2. Main types of translation …………………….14-18 š.



3. Techniques of translation …………………….18-27š.



Chapter 2



Lexical problems of translation ……………………….27-49 š.



Grammatical problems of translation …………………49-58 p.



Stylistic problems of translation …………………………59-64 p.





Conclusion ……………………………………………….65-67 š.

Bibliography ……………………………………………68-69 š.



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-32








Contents





Introduction















Part I General characteristics of the English phraseological units







1.1. Grammatical classification of phraseological units………………………



6



1.2. Genetic classification of phraseological units. Authentically national







phraseological units……………………………………………………...



11



1.3. Loan phraseological units………………………………………………...



17



1.4. Proverbs and sayings……………………………………………………...



30



1.5. Idioms……………………………………………………………………..



37











Part II Translation of phraseological units







2.1. Peculiar features of phraseological units translation……………………..



42



2.2. Methods of translation ……………………………………………...........



48



2.3. The problem of equivalency ……………………………………..............



58



2.4. Comparative analysis of English, Russian and Kyrgyz proverbial







phraseological units……………………………………………………...



65





Conclusion…………………………………………………………………………….



73











Appendix………………………………………………………………………………



75











Bibliography…………………………………………………………………………...



81







Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-33




ļėąķ:



āāåäåķčå...................................................................................... 3



Ćėąāą 1. Įąńķ’ źąź żņčźī-äčäąźņč÷åńźčé ęąķš..................... 7



Ćėąāą 2. įąńķč źšūėīāą č ńīāšåģåķķīńņü............................... 33



ēąźėž÷åķčå............................................................................ 65

ńļčńīź ėčņåšąņóšū.......................................................... 69

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-34










Īćėąāėåķčå:



Āāåäåķč充………………………………………………ńņš. 2

§ 1. Ų. Ąķäåšńīķ č ęąķš ķīāåėėū

ā ąģåščźąķńźīé ėčņåšąņóšå ....................................………ńņš. 2

§ 2. Ąķąėčē ķąó÷ķī-źščņč÷åńźīé

ėčņåšąņóšū ..................................................……...…….ńņš. 3

§ 3. - § 6. Öåėč č ēąäą÷č, ķīāčēķą č ļšåäģåņ

čńńėåäīāąķč’, ēķą÷čģīńņü šąįīņū .................................…..ńņš. 4

Ćėąāą I: Čäåéķī-õóäīęåńņāåķķīå ńīäåšęąķčå

ņāīš÷åńņāą Ų. Ąķäåšńīķą ........................……………...ńņš. 5

§ 1. Ņåīšč’ ķīāåėėū .............................................…....….ńņš. 5

§ 2. Ąķąėčē ėčņåšąņóšķīćī ļšīčēāåäåķč’.........................................………………….ńņš. 7

Ćėąāą II: Öåėīńņķūé ąķąėčē ķīāåėėčńņźč

Ąķäåšńīķą…………………………………………………ńņš. 10

§ 1. Ąķąėčē šąńńźąēą «Ļīćčįųčé šīģąķ»……………………ńņš. 10

§ 2. Ąķąėčē ķīāåėėū «Įóģąęķūå ųąščźč»………………….ńņš. 13

Ēąźėž÷åķčå..............................................……………ńņš. 15

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū...........................….ńņš. 18

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-35




Ńīäåšęąķčå

Āāåäåķčå ……………………………………………………………………… 2-5

II. Īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāīäą ’ēūźą ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé ėčņåšąņóšū

I.1. Ņåšģčķīėīćč’. Āīļšīńū ņåšģčķīėīćčč č āūįīšą ńėīā ļšč ļåšåāīäå 6-12

I.1.2. Ńėīāīńėīęåķčå ņåõķč÷åńźīćī ņåźńņą 13-15

I.1.3. Čķņåšķąöčīķąėčēąöč’ ņåšģčķīėīćčč ā ņåõķčźå 16-17 

I.1.4. Šīėü ļåšåāīä÷čźą ā šąēšąįīņźå ņåšģčķīėīćčč 18-20 

I.2. Šąįīņą ńī ńėīāąšåģ ļšč ļåšåāīäå ķą šóńńźčé ’ēūź 21-24

I.3. Ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčå īįīšīņū 25-29

I.4. Ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčå īńīįåķķīńņč 30-35

I.5. Ńīźšąłåķč’ 36-37

I.6. Ņåõķč÷åńźą’ äīźóģåķņąöč’ č šåźėąģą 38

I.7. Ķåźīņīšūå īńīįåķķīńņč ńņčė’ ļšč ļåšåāīäå ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé

ėčņåšąņóšū 39-48.

II.2. Āīėīźķą čē šåņīšņū (čē źķčćč «Chemie ist Trumpf») 49-50

II. Īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāīäą ķåźīņīšūõ ņåźńņīā ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé ėčņåšąņóšū

II.1. Ėąóõõąģģåš-Ščēą ( čē ęóšķąėą “Energietechnik”-96 ) 51-52

II.3. Ļėąńņģąńńū, ļščģåķ’åģūå ķąčįīėåå ÷ąńņī ā ļšīčēāīäńņāå 

(čē ģīķīćšąōčč «Kunststoffe fur Industrie und Handwerk») 53-54

III. Ēąźėž÷åķčå 55-56

IV. Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū 57-58



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-36


ĪĆĖĄĀĖÅĶČÅ





Āāåäåķčå . . . . . . . . 3



Ćėąāą I . Ņāīš÷åńņāī Ģ. Įóėćąźīāą-äšąģąņóšćą

. . . . . . . . . . . 6



Ćėąāą II. Ńāīåīįšąēčå ńąņčšč÷åńźčõ źīģåäčé Ģ. Įóėćąźīāą. 

. . . . . . . . . . . . 23



Ēąźėž÷åķčå . . . . . . . . . 51



Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū . . . . 54



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-37








Ń Ī Ä Å Š Ę Ą Ķ Č Å

ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ 

ńņš.

ĆĖĄĀĄ I. Īįēīš ėčņåšąņóšū

1.1. Ōčēčīėīćč’ äūõąņåėüķīé ńčńņåģū ÷åėīāåźą ā óńėīāč’õ

āūńīźīćīšü’………………………………………………. ……… 

1.2. Ńīńņī’ķčå ążšīćåģąņč÷åńźīćī įąšüåšą ėåćźčõ źšūń ā

ķīšģå č ļšč āīēäåéńņāčč ćčļīźńč腅…………………………

1.3. Ģīšōīōóķźöčīķąėüķūå čēģåķåķč’ ėåćźčõ ļšč ōčēč÷åńźīé

ķąćšóēźå……………………………………………………………..



ĆĖĄĀĄ II. Ģąņåščąė č ģåņīäū čńńėåäīāąķč’……………………….



ĆĖĄĀĄ III. Šåēóėüņąņū čńńėåäīāąķč’.

Ąäąļņąöčīķķą’ ļåšåńņšīéźą ėåćźčõ źšūń ā ņå÷åķčč 30 ńóņīź ļšč

āūļīėķåķčč ōčēč÷åńźīé ķąćšóēźč ā óńėīāč’õ āūńīźīćīšü’……….

3.1. Ģīšōīėīćč’ įšīķõčąėüķīćī äåšåāą č šåńļčšąņīšķīćī

īņäåėą ėåćźčõ………………………………………………………

3.2. Ģīšōīėīćč’ ėåćī÷ķūõ ńīńóäīā č ążšīćåģąņč÷åńźīćī

įąšüåšą………………………………………………………………

ĒĄŹĖŽ×ÅĶČŅ………………………………………………………

ĖČŅÅŠĄŅÓŠĄ…………………………………………………………..

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-38




ĪĆĖĄĀĖÅĶČÅ





Āāåäåķčå . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Ćėąāą I . Żāīėžöč’ āēąčģīīņķīųåķčé ėč÷ķīńņč č īįłåńņāą ā ļšīčēāåäåķč’õ «Ąķņčėčäåš», «Ćäå ńõīäčėīńü ķåįī ń õīėģąģč», «Īņńņąāųčé»

. . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Ćėąāą II. Ųåńņčäåń’ņķčźč ā ļīāåńņč Ā. Ģąźąķčķą «Īäčķ č īäķą»

. . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Ćėąāą III Ņīņąėčņąšķą’ ńčńņåģą ļīä ńóäīģ ā. Ģąźąķčķą ķą ļščģåšå ļšīčēāåäåķčé «Ąķäåćšąóķä čėč ćåšīé ķąųåćī āšåģåķč», «Įóźāą «Ą».

. . . . . . . . . . . . 49



Ēąźėž÷åķčå . . . . . . . . . . 60



Įčįėčīćšąōč’ . . . . . . . . . 64

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-39












Ļėąķ:



Āāåäåķč充…………………………………………………………3-5



Ćėąāą1. Ģåńņī ōčėīńīōčč Ą.Ņąįąėäčåāą ā ńčńņåģå Źūšćūēńźīé ōčėīńīōč腅………………………………6-21



1.1 Ęčēķü č ņāīš÷åńņāī ōčėīńīōą……………………………………....6-14

1.2 Šąķķčå ņšóäū č ōčėīńīōńźčå ļšīčēāåäåķč’ Ą.Ņąįąėäčåāą…....15-20

Ą) Ļšīįėåģą ķīāīćī ÷åėīāåźą č ńāīįīäķīćī āšåģåķč.

Į) Šąēģūųėåķč’ ī ķąöčīķąėüķūõ ņšąäčöč’õ.

Ā) Źóėüņóšą įūņą.

1.3 Ļšīįėåģū ńīöčąėüķīé ļóįėčöčńņčźč ā ņāīš÷åńņāå ōčėīńīōą….21-24



Ćėąāą2. Ą.Ņąįąėäčåā-īäčķ čē āčäķåéųčõ ļšåäńņąāčņåėåé źūšćūēńźīé ōčėīńīōč腅……24-79



2.1 Ą.Ņąįąėäčåā- čēāåńņķūé ńļåöčąėčńņ ā īįėąńņč čńņīšč÷åńźīćī ģąņåščąėčēģą…………………………………………………………….24-36

2.2 Ļšīįėåģą ķąöčé č ķąöčīķąėüķūõ īņķīųåķčé ā ōčėīńīōčč Ą.Ņąįąėäčåāą (ī äāóõ ņåķäåķöč’õ ā ļšīįėåģå ķąöčč)………………..37-63

2.3 Ļšīįėåģą ēąźīķīģåšķīńņč šąēāčņč’ īįłåńņāåķķīćī ńīēķąķč’ źūšćūēńźīćī ķąšīäą ā ņāīš÷åńņāå Ą.Ņąįąėäčåāą……………………..64-79



Ēąźėž÷åķčå …………………………………………………………..80



Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū…………………...81

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-40


ĪĆĖĄĀĖÅĶČÅ



Āāåäåķč充……………………………………………………………….. 3

Ćėąāą I. Ąķąėčē č čēó÷åķčå żļč÷åńźčõ ļšīčēāåäåķčé ā šóńńźīé ųźīėå

ķą ńīāšåģåķķīģ żņąļå ……………………………………………..7

Ćėąāą II. Ģåņīäčźą čēó÷åķč’ ļšīēū Ą.Ń. Ļóųźčķą («Ļīāåńņč Įåėźčķą», 

«Ļčźīāą’ äąģą», «Źąļčņąķńźą’ äī÷źą») …………………….. 25

Żźńļåščģåķņąėüķą’ ÷ąńņü ……………………………………………... 43

Ēąźėž÷åķčå ………………………………………………………………. 79

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū ………………………………… 83

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Plan

Introduction.

Chapter 1. a) Approaches to learning vocabulary.

§1. How should we approach to vocabulary learning.

§2. Points to consider in vocabulary learning.

b) What is involved in learning a word.

§1. What is involved in knowing a word?

§2. What features make learning a word difficult?

c) Communicating meaning.

§1. The teaching of meaning.

§2. Concepts.

§3. Definitions.

§4. Communicating meaning and remembering the meaning

Chapter 2. a) Vocabulary and listening.

§1. How can I test the size of learners listening vocabulary?

§2. What should you do when your learners don't have enough vocabulary to

understand spoken English?

b)Vocabulary and speaking.

§1. What should you do when your learners don't have enough vocabulary to speak?

§2. Application.

Chapter 3. Vocabulary and reading.

§1. What vocabulary is needed to read English?

§2. What should you do when your learners don't have enough vocabulary to read set texts?

§3. What should you do when there are unknown words in the texts?

§4. What should you do when there are unknown words in English for special

purposes text?

Chapter 4. Vocabulary and writing.

§1. What vocabulary is needed to write English?

§2. What should you do when your learners don't have enough vocabulary to

write?

Conclusion.



Appendix



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-42

Ńīäåšęąķčå šąįīņū:



Āāåäåķčå 2

Ćėąāą I Ėčķćāīäčäąźņč÷åńźčå īńķīāū čēó÷åķč’ īńķīāķūõ ńāåäåķčé ī ’ēūźå

§ 1 Ļīķ’ņčå «’ēūź» č «šå÷ü», «’ēūź» č «īįłåńņāī» č čõ ėčķćāčńņč÷åńźą’ īöåķźą. 4

§ 2 Īņķīųåķčå ģåņīäčńņīā ź äąķķīé ļšīįėåģå. 23

Ćėąāą II Čēó÷åķčå īńķīāķūõ āīļšīńīā ķą óšīźąõ šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą.

§ 1 Ąķąėčē ųźīėüķūõ ļšīćšąģģ č ó÷åįķčźīā. 25

§ 2 Źīķńņąņčšóžłčé żźńļåščģåķņ č åćī šåēóėüņąņū. 28

§ 3 Ńčńņåģą óšīźīā ļī ņåģå č źšąņźčå ģåņīäč÷åńźčå šåźīģåķäąöčč ļī čõ ļščģåķåķčž. 30

§ 4 Šåēóėüņąņū īļūņķīćī īįó÷åķč’. 82

Ēąźėž÷åķčå 83

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū 85

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Ńīäåšęąķčå

ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ



Ćėąāą 1. źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā źūšćūēńźīćī č ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźīā



1.1.Źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā źūšćūēńźīćī ’ēūźą

1.2.Źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźą (Vowels)



Ćėąāą 2. Ļšąźņč÷åńźčå óļšąęķåķč’ ļšč īįó÷åķčč ąķćėčéńźčģ ćėąńķūģ ā źūšćūēńźī’ēū÷ķīé ąóäčņīščč



Ćėąāą 3. Ńīļīńņąāėåķčå ćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā źūšćūēńźīćī č ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźą

Ēąźėž÷åķčå

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-44




ĪĆĖĄĀĖÅĶČÅ











Āāåäåķčå . . . . . . . . . . 4

Ćėąāą I. Ńņšóźņóšķī-ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčå ņčļū ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö šóńńźīćī č źūšćūēńźīćī ’ēūźīā ā ćąēåņķīģ ņåźńņå .

1.1 Ņåīšåņč÷åńźčå īńķīāū ńīāšåģåķķīé ōšąēåīėīćčč . .

1.2 Ėčķćāčńņč÷åńźčå ąńļåźņū čēó÷åķč’ ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö ā ćąēåņķīģ ņåźńņå . . . . 

1.3 Čēó÷åķčå ńņšóźņóšķī-ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčõ ņčļīā ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö ā ćąēåņķīģ ņåźńņå . 29

1.3.1 Ńņšóźņóšķī-ćšąģģąņč÷åńźą’ źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą . . .

1.3.2 Ńņšóźņóšķī-ćšąģģąņč÷åńźą’ źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö źūšćūēńźīćī ’ēūźą . 

1.4 Żźāčāąėåķņķīńņü ā ńčńņåģå ōšąēīīįšąēīāąņåėüķūõ ģīäåėåé

Ćėąāą II. Ńņčėčńņč÷åńźīå čńļīėüēīāąķčå ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö šóńńźīćī č źūšćūēńźīćī ’ēūźīā ā ’ēūźå ćąēåņū 

2.1 Īįłčå āīļšīńū ōóķźöčīķčšīāąķč’ ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö 

2.1.1 Ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčå åäčķčöū šąēėč÷ķūõ ńņčėåé

ā ćąēåņķīģ ņåźńņå . . . . . . 

2.1.2 Źīķņåźńņóąėüķūå āīēģīęķīńņč ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö 94

2.2 Ńņšóźņóšķī-ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčå čēģåķåķč’ ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö 110

2.3 Ńņšóźņóšķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźčå ņšąķńōīšģąöčč ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö. . . . . . . . . 

Ēąźėž÷åķčå . . . . . . . . . 143

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū . . . . 150

Ļščėīęåķč’ . . . . . . . . . 169

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-45


Ńīäåšęąķčå

Āāåäåķč充……………………………………………………………………………1

Ćėąāą I. Ėåźńčźī-ńņčėčńņč÷åńźčå ļšīįėåģū ļåšåāīäą 

I. Ļīķ’ņčå ī ńņčėčńņč÷åńźčõ ļščøģąõ č īįšąēķūõ ńšåäńņāąõ……………………..2

II. Ńļīńīįū ļåšåäą÷č ķåźīņīšūõ ńņčėčńņč÷åńźčõ ļščøģīā 

1. īįšąēķūå ńšåäńņāą 

a) ģåņąōīšū č ńšąāķåķč’……………………………………………….4

b) šąēāøšķóņūå ģåņąōīšū……………………………………………....6

c) ļåšåāīä żļčņåņīā ā ļóįėčöčńņčźå…………………………………..7

d) ļåšåāīä ļåščōšąē…………………………………………………….8

2. čćšą ńėīā………………………………………………………………………...9

a) ļåšåäą÷ą čćšū ńėīā, īńķīāąķķīé ķą čńļīėüēīāąķčč ļåšåķīńķīćī ēķą÷åķč’ ńėīāą……………………………………………………….10

b) ļåšåäą÷ą čćšū ńėīā, īńķīāąķķīé ķą čńļīėüēīāąķčč ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ ēķą÷åķčé ńėīāą………………………………….11

c) ļåšåäą÷ą čćšū ńėīā, īńķīāąķķīé ķą ēķą÷åķčč äāóõ ńėīā- īģīķčģīā……………………………………………………………...12

3. öčņąņū č ąėėžēč腅…………………………………………………………14

4. ąėėčņåšąöč’……………………………………………………………………..15

III. Ļåšåāīä ķåźīņīšūõ ńņčėčńņč÷åńźčõ ńšåäńņā

1. ģåņīķčģč’……………………………………………………………………….17

2. óģåķüųčņåėüķī充…………………………………………………………...19

Ćėąāą 2. Ćšąģģąņčźī-ńņčėčńņč÷åńźčå ļšīįėåģū ļåšåāīäą

1. ńņčėčńņč÷åńźčå ōóķźöčč ļīš’äźą ńėīā ā ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźå………………...23

2. ńņčėčńņč÷åńźčå ōóķźöčč ļīš’äźą ńėīā ā ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźå ā ńīļīńņąāėåķčč ń šóńńźčģ………………………………………………………25

3. īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāīäą ķåźīņīšūõ ęąķšīā šå÷腅………………………....26

a) īōčöčąėüķī-äåėīāūå ģąņåščąėū…………………………………….28

b) ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźčå ģąņåščąėū……………………………………...32

c) ćąēåņķī-čķōīšģąöčīķķūå ģąņåščąėū……………………………......34

Ēąźėž÷åķč充…………………………………………………………………………...38

Įčįėčīćšąōč’……………………………………………………………………………...39

Ńīäåšęąķč充…………………………………………………………………………...40



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-46

ļėąķ:



āāåäåķčå



Ćėąāą 1. Įąńķ’ źąź żņčźī-äčäąźņč÷åńźčé ęąķš



Ćėąāą 2. įąńķč źšūėīāą ā ńčńņåģå šóńńźīé ėčņåšąņóšū źīķöą 18 ķą÷ąėą 19 āåźīā.

āīńļšč’ņčå įąńåķ ńīāšåģåķķčźąģč źšūėīāą



ēąźėž÷åķčå

ńļčńīź ėčņåšąčóšū

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-47






ŃĪÄÅŠĘĄĶČÅ













ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



3



ĆĖĄĀĄ 1. ĪĮŁĄß ŅÅĪŠČß Č ĻŠÅÄĢÅŅ ŃĪÖČĪĖČĶĆĀČŃŅČŹČ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



5



1.1. ŃĪÖČĄĖÜĶĄß ĀĄŠČĄŅČĀĶĪŃŅÜ ßĒŪŹĄ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



12



1.2. ŃĻÅÖČŌČŹĄ ŠÅ×ÅĀĪĆĪ ĻĪĀÅÄÅĶČß _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



20



ĆĖĄĀĄ 2. ĢĪĖĪÄØĘĶŪÉ ßĒŪŹ ŹĄŹ ĻŠÅÄĢÅŅ ŃĪÖČĪĖČĶĆĀČŃŅČŹČ _ _



22



2.1. ĢĪĖĪÄØĘÜ Č ĢĪÄĶŪÅ ŃĖĪĀĄ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



24



2.2. ĢĪĖĪÄØĘĶŪÉ ŃĖÅĶĆ ĶĪŠĢĄ ČĖČ ĄĶŅČĶĪŠĢĄ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



38



2.3. MOĪÄØĘĶŪÉ ĖÅŹŃČŹĪĶ Ā ŠÓŃŃŹĪĢ, ĶÅĢÅÖŹĪĢ Č ŹŪŠĆŪĒŃŹĪĢ ßĒŪŹĄÕ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _





46



ĒĄŹĖŽ×ÅĶČÅ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



53



ŃĻČŃĪŹ ČŃĻĪĖÜĒĪĀĄĶĶĪÉ ĖČŅÅŠĄŅÓŠŪ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _



54





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Īćėąāėåķčå

ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ …………………………………………………………3



Ćėąāą I. Ķåźīņīšūå ļšīįėåģū ņåīščč ōšąēåīėīćčč

ā ’ēūźīēķąķčč

§1. Ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčå åäčķčöū źąź īįśåźņ

čńńėåäīāąķč’ ā ’ēūźīēķąķč腅…………………………..7

§2 .Ļščķöčļū āūäåėåķč’ č šąēćšąķč÷åķč’ ėåźńčźī-

ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčõ šąēš’äīā ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö……..11

§3. Āīļšīńū čēó÷åķč’ ōšąēåīėīćčč ā ųźīė充…………….22



Ćėąāą II. Īļčńąķčå ńņšóźņóšķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźčõ īņķīųåķčé

ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ åäčķčö ā ļīāåńņč

Ą.Ļščńņąāźčķą “Ķī÷åāąėą ņó÷źą ēīėīņą’”

§1. Ńčķņąźńč÷åńźčå ōóķźöčč ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčõ

åäčķčö ā ņåźńņ充…………………………………….……29





ĒĄŹĖŽ×ÅĶČŅ……………………………………………………37

ĻŠČĖĪĘÅĶČŅ……………………………………………………41

ŃĻČŃĪŹ ČŃĻĪĖÜĒÓÅĢĪÉ ĖČŅÅŠĄŅÓŠŪ……………………..99

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-49








Ńīäåšęąķčå

Āāåäåķč充……………………………………………………………. ń.3

Ćėąāą I. Īńķīāķūå ļšīįėåģū ńīāšåģåķķīé ėåźńč÷åńźīé ńåģąķņčźč

§ 1 Ņīėźīāąķčå ėåźńč÷åńźčõ ēķą÷åķčé źąź ėåźńč÷åńźą’

ļšīįėåģą………..…………..……………………………….. ń.8 

§ 2 Ņčļū īįśåäčķåķčé ńėīā ļī čõ ēķą÷åķč’ģ………………… ń.22

§ 3 Ģķīćīēķą÷ķīńņü ńėīāą…………………………………….. ń.32

Ćėąāą II. Īļūņ źīķņšąńņčāķīćī īļčńąķč’ ėåźńčźč ķą ģąņåščąėå

ėåźńčźī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźīé ćšóļļū ćėąćīėīā äāčęåķč’

šóńńźīćī č ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźīā

§ 1 Ņčļū ńņšīåķč’ ėåźńčźī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźčõ ćšóļļ ćėąćīėīā… ń.55

§ 2 Ģåņīäū čēó÷åķč’ ėåźńčźī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźčõ ćšóļļ……….. ń.58

§ 3 Ī źīķņšąńņčāķīģ ģåņīä充……………………………... ń.62

§ 4 Ėåźńčźī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźą’ ćšóļļą ćėąćīėīā äāčęåķč’

šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą…………..…………………………………. ń.64

§ 5 Ėåźńčźī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźą’ ćšóļļą ćėąćīėīā äāčęåķč’

ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźą…..……………………………………… ń.82

Ēąźėž÷åķčå…...…..……………………………………………………... ń.92

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēóåģīé ėčņåšąņóšū…………………………………… ń.95



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Content:



Introduction………………………………………………………………....2

Chapter I

1.1 General characteristics of the English phraseological Units……………..4

1.2 Stylistic use of phraseological Units ………………………….11

Chapter II

2.1 Class A Classification of Phraseological Units

Nominative Phraseological Units…………………….…17 

Adjectival Phraseological Units…………………………26

Adverbial and Prepositional Phraseological Units………29

2.2 Class B Nominative and Nominatively Communicative Ph.U.

Verbal Phraseological Units…………………………......32

2.3 Class C Interjectional Phraseological Units and modal Ph.U.

of non - interjectional character

Interjectional Phraseological Units………………………49

2.4 Class D Communicative Phraseological Units

Proverbs and sayings……………………………….…....51 

The conclusion…………………………………………………..60

The list of used literature…………………………………….…62

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ĪĆĖĄĀĖÅĶČÅ





Āāåäåķčå . . . . . . . . 3

Äāčęåķčå ęąķšą ļīāåńņč ā ņāīš÷åńņāå Ģ. Źóšąåāą 

§1. Ģåņąģīšōīēą ×óįąņīćī, čėč ļåšåńņšīéźą ėč÷ķīńņč, ā ļīāåńņč «Źąļčņąķ Äčźųņåéķ» (1977-1987). . . . 10

§2. «Ģąėåķüźčå ńåģåéķūå ņąéķū» (1971-1988) ā įīėüųīé čńņīščč ńņšąķū. . . . . . . . . 21

§3. Ļīńņčęåķčå ļńčõīėīćčč «āčķņčźą» ā ģåõąķčēģå ņīņąėčņąšķīćī ķąńčėč’, ļīāåńņü «Ķī÷ķīé äīēīš» (1966-1988)

. . . . . . . . . . . . 27

§4. Ąļīōåīē āīéķū, čėč ģó÷åķč÷åńņāī č ćåšīčēģ ėåķčķćšąäńźīćī įėīźąäķīćī ąäą, ļī ļīāåńņč «Įėīź-Ąäą» (1942-1994)

. . . . . . . . . . . . 35

§5. Ķīāīå ęčņčå, ā ļīāåńņč «Ļåņ’ ļī äīšīćå ā öąšńņāčå ķåįåńķīå» (1996). . . . . . . . . 44



Ēąźėž÷åķčå . . . . . . . . . 49

Įčįėčīćšąōč’ . . . . . . . . 54

Ļščģå÷ąķč’ . . . . . . . . . 55



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-53














Īćėąāėåķčå:







1. Āāåäåķčå.

ą) Ēķą÷åķčå šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą ķą ńīāšåģåķķīģ żņąļå.

į) Čē čńņīščč čēó÷åķč’ 

ńėīęķīļīä÷čķåķķīćī ļšåäėīęåķč’ ā

šóńńźīģ č źčšćčēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ.







2. Ćėąāą 1.

Ńėīęķīļīä÷čķåķķūå ļšåäėīęåķč’

ń īņķīųåķčåģ īäķīāšåģåķķīńņč 

äåéńņāčé ā šóńńźīģ ’ēūźå č čõ

ńīīņāåņńņāč’ ā źčšćčēńźīģ ’ēūźå.





3. Ćėąāą 2.

Ńėīęķīļīä÷čķåķķūå ļšåäėīęåķč’ 

ń īņķīųåķčåģ šąēķīāšåģåķķīńņč 

äåéńņāčé ā šóńńźīģ ’ēūźå č

čõ ńīīņāåņńņāč’ ā źčšćčēńźīģ ’ēūźå.





4. Ēąźėž÷åķčå.

5.Įčįėčīćšąōč’.

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-54




ĪĆĖĄĀĖÅĶČÅ:




I. Āāåäåķčå. 3

II. Īńķīāķą’ ÷ąńņü. 7

1. Ļščķöčļū īįó÷åķč’ ģīķīėīćč÷åńźīé č äčąėīćč÷åńźīé óńņķīé šå÷č. 7

Ćėąāą 1. Ģåņīäčźą īįó÷åķč’ äčąėīćč÷åńźīé šå÷č. 9

a) Šåļėčźč 

b) Īņįīš ģąņåščąėą 14

c) Ļīäćīņīāčņåėüķūå óļšąęķåķč’ 14

d) Šå÷åāūå óļšąęķåķč’ 17

e) Åńņåńņāåķķą’ šå÷åāą’ ńčņóąöč’ 20



Ćėąāą 2. Ļīāņīš’åģīńņü č āąščąņčāķīńņü ā ļšīöåńńå īįó÷åķč’ äčąėīćč÷åńźīé šå÷č. 22

1) Ļīāņīš’åģīńņü 22

a) óńņīé÷čāūå ńī÷åņąķč’. Źėčųå 22

b) «āńņšå÷ķūå āīļšīńū» 23

c) «ųąļźą» äčąėīćą 25

d) ńõåģą įåńåäū 26

2) Āąščąņčāķīńņü 28

a) čķņīķąöčīķķą’ āąščąņčāķīńņü 29

b) ėåźńč÷åńźą’ āąščąņčāķīńņü 30



2. Ķåźīņīšūå ąńļåźņū āēąčģīäåéńņāč’ ćšąģģąņčźč ćīāīš’łåćī č ćšąģģąņčźč ńėóųąžłåćī (ā ąķćėčéńźīé äčąėīćč÷åńźīé šå÷č).

3. Āīļšīńķī-īņāåņķūå äčąėīćč÷åńźčå åäčķńņāą 31

1) Ķåāīļšīńķī-īņāåņķūå äčąėīćč÷åńźčå åäčķńņāą 72



III. Ēąźėž÷åķčå 97

IV. Ńļčńīź ėčņåšąņóšū 99



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-55




Content



Introduction ……………………………………………………....



3











Chapter 1. Theory and Practice of Translation ………………..



7



1.1. History of Theory and Practice of Translation ……….



7



1.2. Subject, Aims and Methods of Translation Theory ….



15











Chapter 2. Translation Transformations ………………………



17



2.1. Grammatical Transformations ...……………………...



17



2.2. Lexical Transformations …………………..…………..



32



2.3. Stylistic Transformations …………..………………….



45



2.4. Transformations Caused by Some Peculiarities of Word- building in English ………...………………………..





60











Conclusion ………………………………………………………..



66



Bibliography …………………….………………………………..



69



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-56




Contents



Introduction.



Chapter I. Word-formation

Historical background of Word – formation in English/

Various ways of forming words.

Productive ways of forming words.

Prefixation.

Suffixation, Synonymy.

Conversion.



Chapter II. Word composition.

The meaning of compounds.

Classification of compounds.



Chapter III. Word formation in Russian.

Historical background of word-formation in Russian.

Various ways of forming words in Russian.



Conclusion.

APPENDIX.

Bibliography.

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-57






Āāåäåķčå.

Ćėąāą 1. Ėčņåšąņóšķūé īįēīš.

1.1. Šīėü, ēķą÷åķčå šåųåķč’ ēąäą÷ ā īįó÷åķčč õčģčč.

1.2. Źėąńńčōčźąöč’ õčģč÷åńźčõ ēąäą÷. Ńčńņåģą õčģč÷åńźčõ ēąäą÷.

1.3. Ąķąėčē õčģč÷åńźīé ēąäą÷č.

1.4. Čńļīėüēīāąķčå ēķąķčé ōčēčźč č ģąņåģąņčźč ļšč šåųåķčč ēąäą÷ ļī õčģčč.

1.5. Ńļīńīįū šåųåķč’ õčģč÷åńźčõ ēąäą÷.

1.6. Ģåņīäč÷åńźčå ļščķöčļū īįó÷åķč’ šåųåķčž ēąäą÷.

Ćėąāą 2. Żźńļåščģåķņąėüķą’ ÷ąńņü.

2.1. Čńļīėüēīāąķčå ēąäą÷ ķą óšīźąõ õčģčč.

2.2. Ēąäą÷č ļī ņåģąģ:

2.2.1. Ēąäą÷č ķą ķąõīęäåķčå ģīėåźóė’šķīé ōīšģóėū.

2.2.2. Ēąäą÷č ļī óšąāķåķč’ģ õčģč÷åńźīé šåąźöčč.

2.2.3. Šąń÷åņū ļī ņåšģīõčģč÷åńźčģ óšąāķåķč’ģ

2.2.4. Źīģįčķčšīāąķķūå ēąäą÷č.

2.2.5. Ēąäą÷č ķą ķąõīęäåķčå ģąńńīāīé, īįśåģķīé äīėč āūõīäą ļšīäóźņą.

2.2.6. Ēąäą÷č ķą īļšåäåėåķčå ģąńńū, īįśåģą, źīėč÷åńņāą āåłåńņāą, åńėč īäčķ čē čńõīäķūõ āåłåńņā āē’ņī ā čēįūņźå.

Āūāīä.

Ėčņåšąņóšą.

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-58









Die Gliederung der Diplomarbeit:





1.Enleitung: ........................................... S.2-3



1.1. Ziele und Aufgaben der Diplonarbeit.



1.2. Definition der Begriffe:





a. Emotion

b. Emotionalität

c. Emotivität

d. Expessivität

e. Emotive Sprachmittel





2. Sprachkommunikation und Emotivität ............................... S. 4-8





3. Ausdrucksmittel der Emotivität: ................................S. 9-43

a. Grammatishe Ausdruksmittel .........................................S.9-29

b. Lexische Ausdrucksmittel ......................................... S. 30-35

c. Stilistische Ausdrucksmittel ..................................... S. 35-40

d. Paralinguismen als Sygnale der Emotionen.

e.Emotiven Klischees in der Rede ..................................S.41-43





4. Analyse der Textabschnitte .........................................S.43-48



5. Schlussfolgerung der Diplomarbeit ...............................S.49-50



6.Literaturverzeichnis ......................................................S.51-52



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-59











içindekiler

Sayfa

ÖNSÖZ 3

GİRİŞ 4

MASALLAR

1. Padişahinen Lele 6

2. Altun Topi 13

3. Diner-Söylemez 19

4. Mayil Bek 27

5. Yetim Oglan 36

6. Fuhara Oglan 39

7. Kurnazlık 44

8. Kerimenin Hekiyası 47

9. Haci-Kasımın Hekiyası 58

10. Kurnaz Oglan 66

11. İran Şahın Hekiyası 77

12. Avcı Ahmedin Hekiyası 81

13. Sabırsuzluh, Açgözluh, Merahluh 88

14. Bezirgen 92

15. Paluhçi Oglan 97

16. Emek-Herşeyin Başıdur 102

17. Çırtan 108

18. Ceyilleden Alma 114



FOTOĞRAFLAR 115-117



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-60




Ļėąķ:

ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ



Ćėąāą 1. źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ńīćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā źūšćūēńźīćī č ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźīā

1.1. Źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ńīćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā źūšćūēńźīćī ’ēūźą

1.2.Źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ńīćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźą



Ćėąāą 2. Ļšąźņč÷åńźīå óļšąęķåķčå ļšč īįó÷åķčč ąķćėčéńźīćī ńīćėąńķīćī ā źūšćūēńźī’ēū÷ķīé ąóäčņīščč



Ćėąāą 3. ńīļīńņąāėåķčå źūšćūēńźčõ č ąķćėčéńźčõ ńīćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā



Ēąźėž÷åķčå

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-61


Ńīäåšęąķčå

ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ



Ćėąāą 1. źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā źūšćūēńźīćī č ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźīā



1.1.Źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā źūšćūēńźīćī ’ēūźą

1.2.Źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźą (Vowels)



Ćėąāą 2. Ļšąźņč÷åńźčå óļšąęķåķč’ ļšč īįó÷åķčč ąķćėčéńźčģ ćėąńķūģ ā źūšćūēńźī’ēū÷ķīé ąóäčņīščč

Ćėąāą 3. Ńīļīńņąāėåķčå ćėąńķūõ ēāóźīā źūšćūēńźīćī č ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźą



Ēąźėž÷åķčå

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-62








Ļėąķ:

Āāåäåķčå

Ćėąāą I. Ņåīšåņč÷åńźčå īńķīāū īįó÷åķč’ ąóäčšīāąķčž.

1.Ąóäčšīāąķčå źąź āčä šå÷åāīé äå’ņåėüķīńņč.

3.Īńķīāķūå ņšóäķīńņč ļīķčģąķč’ šå÷č ķą ńėóõ č ļóņč čõ ļšåīäīėåķč’.

4. Šå÷ü ó÷čņåė’ ķą óšīźå.

Ćėąāą II. Ģåņīäčźą īįó÷åķč’ ąóäčšīāąķčž.

1.Ńčńņåģą óļšąęķåķčé äė’ īįó÷åķč’ ąóäčšīāąķčž.

2. Óšīāķč ļīķčģąķč’ č ńļīńīįū čõ źīķņšīė’.

3.

4. Īįó÷åķčå ąóäčšīāąķčž āī āķåźėąńńķīé šąįīņå.

Ą) Óćėóįėåķķīå īāėąäåķčå ąóäčšīāąķčåģ ķą ēąķ’ņč’õ źšóęźą.

Į) Īšćąķčēąöč’ šąäčīļåšåäą÷ ā ųźīėå.

Ēąźėž÷åķčå

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóš

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-63




Ńīäåšęąķčå



Āāåäåķčå

Ćėąāą I. Ģåņīäčźą č čēó÷åķč’ óšąāķåķčé ńīäåšęąłčõ ļąšąģåņšū ā ųźīėüķīģ źóšńå ģąņåģąņčźč.

§ 1. Šīėü óšąāķåķčé – ńīäåšęąłčõ ļąšąģåņšū ā ųźīėå.

§ 2. Ļīėåēķīńņč ļąšąģåņšč÷åńźīćī óšąāķåķč’.

Ćėąāą II. Ģåņīäčźą šåųåķč’ ēąäą÷, ńīäåšęąłčõ ļąšąģåņšū ā X-X1 źėąńńąõ.

§ 1. Ėčķåéķūå óšąāķåķčå č óšąāķåķčå ļščāīäčģūå ź ėčķåéķūģ.

§ 2. Źāąäšąņķūå óšąāķåķčå č óšąāķåķčå ļščāīäčģūå ź źāąäšąņķūģ.

§ 3. Čššąöčīķąėüķūå óšąāķåķčå.

§ 4. Ļīźąēąņåėüķūå č ėīćąščōģč÷åńźčå óšąāķåķčč.

§ 5. Ņščćīķīģåņšč÷åńźčå óšąāķåķčč.

§ 6. Ćšąōč÷åńźīå šåųåķčå ķåźīņīšūõ óšąāķåķčé č šåųåķčå óšąāķåķčé, ļšč ķåźīņīšūõ ķą÷ąėüķūõ óńėīāč’õ.

Ēąźėž÷åķčå.

Ėčņåšąņóšą.

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-65




Īćėąāėåķčå



I Āāåäåķčå

II Īńķīāķūå āčäū ļåšåāīäą

Ćėąāą 1: Ęąķšīāī-ńņčėčńņč÷åńźą’ źėąńńčōčźąöč’

ą) Õóäīęåńņāåķķūé ļåšåāīä

į) Čķōīšģąņčāķūé ļåšåāīä

Ćėąāą 2: Ļńčõīėčķćāčńņč÷åńźą’ źėąńńčōčźąöč’

ą) Óńņķūé ļåšåāīä: ńčķõšīķķūé č ļīńėåäīāąņåėüķūé

į) Ļčńüģåķķūé ļåšåāīä

Ćėąāą 3: Īńķīāķūå šąēėč÷č’ ģåęäó óńņķūģ č

ļčńüģåķķūģ ļåšåāīäīģ

III Ēąźėž÷åķčå



IV Ńļčńīź ėčņåšąņóšū

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-64




Ļėąķ.

Āńņóļėåķčå. 1-3

Ćėąāą I Ļīķ’ņčå «Ļåšåāīä» 3-15

Ćėąāą II Ēķą÷åķč’ ’ēūźīāīé ļščšīäū õóäīęåńņāåķķīćī īįšąēą ā ėčņåšąņóšå. 15-16

§1. Šīėü ėåźńč÷åńźīé īźšąńźč ńėīāą č āīēģīęķīńņč åø ļåšåäą÷č. 16-19

§2. Īįšąēķīå ēķą÷åķčå ńėīāą ā ńī÷åņąķč’õ ń äšóćčģč 19-20

§3. Ļåšåäą÷ą ńņčėčńņč÷åńźīé šīėč čćšū ńėīā 20-22

§4. Čńļīėüēīāąķčå ģīšōīėīćč÷åńźčõ ńšåäńņā ’ēūźą 22-23

§5. Šīėü ńčķņąźńč÷åńźčõ ńā’ēåé č õąšąźņåšą ńčķņąźńč÷åńźīćī ļīńņšīåķč’ äė’ ščņģą ļšīēū 23-28

§6. Ķåīįõīäčģīńņü čēįåćąņü ščōģū č ńņčõīņāīšķīćī šąēģåšą ā ļšīēå 

28-31

Ćėąāą III Ńīõšąķåķč’ ńģūńėīāīé åģźīńņč õóäīęåńņāåķķīćī ņåźńņą źąź ēąäą÷ą ļåšåāīäą. 31-33

Ćėąāą IV Ļšīįėåģą ńīõšąķåķč’ ķąöčīķąėüķīé īźšąńźč ā ļåšåāīäå õóäīęåńņāåķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū. 33-41

Ćėąāą V ×åšņū ļīäėčķķčźą ńā’ēąķķūå ńī āšåģåķåģ åćī ńīēäąķč’ č ēąäą÷ą ļåšåāīäą 41-48

Ćėąāą VI Īįłą’ ļīńņąķīāźą āīļšīńą ī ńīįėžäåķčč čķäčāčäóąėüķīćī ńāīåīįšąēčå ļīäėčķķčźą ā ļåšåāīäå 48-54



Ēąźėž÷åķčå.

Įčįėčīćšąōč’. 

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-66




Ńīäåšęąķčå







1. Āāåäåķč充…………………………………………………...(3-19)



2. Ćėąāą 1

Öåėč, ēąäą÷č, ģåņīäū čńńėåäīāąķč’……………………….…..(19)



3. Ćėąāą 2

Īńīįåķķīńņč šå÷č ó ēąčźąžłčõń’ äåņåé ā āīēšąńņå 5-6 ėåņ…(20-37)



4. Ćėąāą 3

Īńķīāķą’ źīššåźöčīķķą’ šąįīņą ń ēąčźąžłčģčń’

äåņüģč ā āīēšąńņå 5-6 ėåņ…………………………………….....(38-58)



5. Ēąźėž÷åķč充………………………………………………....(59-60)



6. Ėčņåšąņ󹱅………………………………………………….…(61-64)



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-67




ĪĆĖĄĀĖÅĶČÅ











Āāåäåķčå …………………………………………………………………………



3



Ćėąāą 1 Ņåīšåņč÷åńźčå īńķīāū čńńėåäīāąķč’ ………………………………



10



1.1 Ńīļīńņąāčņåėüķīå ’ēūźīēķąķčå źąź ķīāūé šąēäåė ėčķćāčńņčźč .………...



10



1.2 Ļīķ’ņčå ōóķźöčīķąėüķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźīćī ļīė’ ā ėčķćāčńņčźå….………..



21



1.3 Īįłą’ õąšąźņåščńņčźą ōóķźöčīķąėüķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźīćī ļīė’ īäóųåāėøķķīńņč ā ķåģåöźīģ č źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ ā ńīļīńņąāčņåėüķīģ ąńļåźņ充………………………………………………………………….……







28



Ćėąāą 2 Ńīļīńņąāčņåėüķūé ėåźńčźī-ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčé ąķąėčē ōóķźöčīķąėüķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźīćī ļīė’ īäóųåāėøķķīńņč ā ķåģåöźīģ č źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ…………………………………….….…………………...







32



2.1 Ėåźńč÷åńźčå ńšåäńņāą īįšąēīāąķč’ ōóķźöčīķąėüķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźīćī ļīė’ īäóųåāėøķķīńņč ā ķåģåöźīģ č źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ……………………..





32



2.1.1 Ėåźńčźī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźčå ćšóļļū ā ńōåšå ńółåńņāčņåėüķūõ……….……



33



2.1.2 Ėåźńčźī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźčå ćšóļļū ā ńōåšå ćėąćīėīā.……………..….…….



49



2.1.3 Ėåźńčźī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźčå ćšóļļū ā ńōåšå ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ…….………...



67



2.2 Ģīšōīėīćč÷åńźčå ńšåäńņāą īįšąēīāąķč’ ōóķźöčīķąėüķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźīćī ļīė’ īäóųåāėøķķīńņč ā ķåģåöźīģ č źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ…..





78



2.2.1 Ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčé šīä ńółåńņāčņåėüķūõ ā ķåģåöźīģ ’ēūźå č čõ ńīīņāåņńņāč’ ā źūšćūēńźīģ…………………………………….………………..





82



2.2.2 Ąōōčźńū ńółåńņāčņåėüķūõ ā źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźå č čõ ńīīņāåņńņāč’ ā ķåģåöźīģ……………………………………………………………………….…





89



2.2.3 Ģåńņīčģåķč’ (ėč÷ķūå, ķåīļšåäåėåķķūå, āīļšīńčņåėüķūå) ā ķåģåöźīģ č źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ.……………………………………………………………





98



2.3 Ńčķņąźńč÷åńźčå ńšåäńņāą īįšąēīāąķč’ ōóķźöčīķąėüķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźīćī ļīė’ īäóųåāėøķķīńņč ā ķåģåöźīģ č źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźąõ…………………….





108



2.3.1 Ģīäåėü ļšåäėīęåķč’ ń ļīäėåęąłčģ man ķåģåöźīćī ’ēūźą č ńīīņāåņńņāóžłčé åģó ōóķźöčīķąėüķī-ńåģąķņč÷åńźčé żźāčāąėåķņ ā źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźå……………………………………………….………………







114



2.3.2 Ģīäåėü ļšåäėīęåķč’ ń įåēėč÷ķūģ ļąńńčāīģ ā ķåģåöźīģ ’ēūźå č čõ ńīīņāåņńņāč’ ā źūšćūēńźīģ…………………………..…………………………





122



Ēąźėž÷åķčå …………………………………………………………………….



128



Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū…………………………………………..



134



Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķūõ čńņī÷ķčźīā ąķąėčēą ………………………………..



140





Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-69




Īćėąāėåķčå



ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ

ĆĖĄĀĄ I Īįłčå ńāåäåķč’ ī ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźå

1.1. Źėąńńčōčźąöč’ ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ

ą) Źą÷åńņāåķķūå ļščėąćąņåėüķūå

į) Īņķīńčņåėüķūå ļščėąćąņåėüķūå

ā) Źīėč÷åńņāåķķūå ļščėąćąņåėüķūå

1.2. Ńļīńīįū īįšąēīāąķč’ ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźå

ą) Ģīšōīėīćč÷åńźčé ńļīńīį (ńóōōčźńąöč’)

į) Ńčķņąźńčźī-ģīšōīėīćč÷åńźčé ńļīńīį (ńėīāīńėīęåķčå)

ā) Īįšąēīāąķčå ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ īņ ļšč÷ąńņčé

1.3. Ńčķņąźńč÷åńźčå ōóķźöčč ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźå

ą) Ąņščįóņčāķą’ ōóķźöč’

į) Ļšåäčźąņčāķą’ ōóķźöč’

1.4. Ńóįńņąķņčāąöč’ ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźå

ą) Ļščēķąźč ńóįńņąķņčšīāąķķīćī ļščėąćąņåėüķīćī

ĆĖĄĀĄ II Ńīļīńņąāėåķčå ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā šóńńźīģ č ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźąõ

2.1. Ņčļīėīćč÷åńźčå ļščēķąźč ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā šóńńźīģ č ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźąõ

2.2. Ļīėķą’ č źšąņźą’ ōīšģū ā ąķćėčéńźīģ č šóńńźīģ ’ēūźąõ

ĆĖĄĀĄ III Ńšąāķčņåėüķą’ č ļšåāīńõīäķą’ ńņåļåķč ńšąāķåķč’

ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā šóńńźīģ č ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźąõ

3.1. Ļīėīęčņåėüķą’ ńņåļåķü ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā šóńńźīģ č ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźąõ

3.2. Ńčķņåņč÷åńźčå ōīšģū īįšąēīāąķč’ ńšąāķčņåėüķīé č ļšåāīńõīäķīé ńņåļåķč

ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā šóńńźīģ č ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźąõ

3.3. Ąķąėčņč÷åńźčå ōīšģū īįšąēīāąķč’ ńšąāķčņåėüķīé č ļšåāīńõīäķīé ńņåļåķč

ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā šóńńźīģ č ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźąõ

3.4. Ķåļšīäóźņčāķūå ōīšģū ńņåļåķåé ńšąāķåķč’



ĒĄŹĖŽ×ÅĶČÅ

ĖČŅÅŠĄŅÓŠĄ

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-70




ŃĪÄÅŠĘĄĶČÅ





ńņš.

ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ 2



ĆĖĄĀĄ I 

Ļščšīäą žģīšą ׹šėüēą Äčźźåķńą. 8



ĆĖĄĀĄ II

Žģīš Äčźźåķńą ā īöåķźå šóńńźīé źščņčźč. 29



ĒĄŹĖŽ×ÅĶČÅ 35



ŃĻČŃĪŹ ČŃĻĪĖÜĒĪĀĄĶĶĪÉ ĖČŅÅŠĄŅÓŠŪ 38 

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-72






ĻĖĄĶ:



Āāåäåķčå 3-5



Ćėąāą 1. Ļšīįėåģą ńėīćą ā ńīāšåģåķķīé

ėčķćāčńņčźå. 6-14

§ 1. Ņčļīėīćč÷åńźčé ąķąėčē ńėīćīāūõ

ńņšóźņóš ā ’ēūźąõ šąēėč÷ķūõ

ņčļīā. 15-27



Ćėąāą 2.Ńėīćīāą’ ńņšóźņóšą ķą ģąņåščąėå ąķćėčéńźīćī 

’ēūźą. 28-46

ą) ōīķåņč÷åńźą’ ńņšóźņóšą ńėīāą

į) ąźöåķņķī-ščņģč÷åńźą’ ńņšóźņóšą

ā) ōīķåģķą’ ńņšóźņóšą

ć)ńīīņķīųåķčå ąšņčźóė’ņīšķīé č ōīķąöčīķķīé 

ķąļš’ęåķķīńņüž



Ćėąāą 3. Ńėīćīāą’ ńņšóźņóšą ā źūšćūēńźīģ ’ēūźå.47-57



Ēąźėž÷åķčå. 58-61

Įčįėčīćšąōč’. 62-63

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-73






PLAN



NTRODUCTION………………………………………p.3



1. Chapter 1



Oscar Wilde as a Brilliant Dramatist of His Time………..š.5



2. Chapter 2



Investigation Proper………………………………….š.15



1.Some notes on style and stylistics………………………š.15



2.Lexical EMs and SDs…………………………………….š.24



3.Syntactical Ems and SDs………………………………..š.54



General Conclusions……………………………š.63

Bibliography………………………………………………….š.66

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-74




Āāåäåķčå

«Īįó÷åķčå ėåźńč÷åńźīģó ąńļåźņó čķī’ēū÷ķīé šå÷č ķą ķą÷ąėüķīģ żņą­ļå ā ńšåäķåé īįłåīįšąēīāąņåėüķīé ųźīėå» (ķą ģąņåščąėąõ ąķćėčéńźīćī ’ēūźą).

I. Ļóņč, ńļīńīįū č ļščåģū ńåģąķņčēąöčč ąķćėčéńźīé ėåźńčźč ķą ķą­÷ąėüķīģ żņąļå ā ńšåäķåé īįłåīįšąēīāąņåėüķīé ųźīėå.

Ļ. Šąēāčņčå č ńīāåšųåķńņāīāąķčå ėåźńč÷åńźčõ ķąāūźīā ā ļšīöåńńå īįó­÷åķč’ ąķćėčéńźīģó ’ēūźó.

III. Äčäąźņč÷åńźčå čćšū ķą óšīźąõ čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą, źąź īäčķ čē ńļī­ńīįīā ļīāūųåķč’ čķņåšåńą ó÷ąłčõń’ ź čēó÷åķčž čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēū­źą.

Ēąźėž÷åķčå. Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū.



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-75




Plan-content



Introduction 1



General survey of culture.

Peculiarities of some traditions.

· In America: Easter.

· In Kyrgzstan: Kelin aluu.

Conclusion. 

Bibliography.



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-76






Inhalt



1. Vorwort und Danksagung....................................3-4

2. Rund um die Werbung

Was heisst Werbung.......................................5-6

Formen der Werbung........................................7

Werbeziele........................................................8

Die Rhetorik in der Werbung............................9-10

Persuasive Funktion von Sprache....................11-14



3. Stilistische und lexikalish-grammatische Besonderheiten der Werbesprache



Stlistische Merkmale......................................14-16

Fachsprache................................................16-23

Jugensprache...............................................23-25

Dialekte.......................................................26-27

Anglizismen als stilistische Mittel in der Werbesprache...............................................27-32

Lexikalisch-grammatische Merkmale...............33-41

Grammatik in der Werbung............................41-46

4. Schlusswort. Werbesprache – eine besondere Inszenierung.....................................................47-49

5. Literaturverzeichnis............................................50-51



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-77




Plan:



Einführung



I. Höflichkeitsformeln in der deutschen und kirgisischen Sprache

1.1 Definition

1.2 Anredeformeln

1.3 Begrüßungsformeln als Ausdruck der Höflichkeit

1.4 Abschiedsformeln

1.5 Danksagungen

1.6 Entschuldigung

1.7 Tabu als Zeichen des Respekts zu älteren Leuten

1.8 Das höfliche Benehmen in der privaten Gastlichkeit

1.9 Negation als Höflichkeit 



II. Höfliche Ausdrücke aus der kirgisischen und deutschen schöngeistigen Literatur



Schlußfolgerung 

Literaturverzeichnis

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-78




Īćėąāėåķčå







Āāåäåķčå





Ćėąāą I.

Šīėü ģīäąėüķīńņč ā ļåšåāīäå.



§ 1.1 Ńčńņåģą ńļīńīįīā āūšąęåķč’ ģīäąėüķīńņč.

§ 1.2 Īņšąęåķčå č ļåšåāīä ģīäąėüķīńņč ā óńņķīé šå÷č.

§ 1.3 Īņšąęåķčå č ļåšåāīä ģīäąėüķīńņč ā

ļčńüģåķķīé šå÷č.



Ćėąāą I I.

Ńčńņåģą óļšąęķåķčé ń čńļīėüēīāąķčåģ ģīäąėüķīńņč ļšč ļīäćīņīāźå ļåšåāīä÷čźīā







Ēąźėž÷åķčå



Ńļčńīź ėčņåšąņóšū



Ńņš. 3-4









Ńņš. 5-33









Ńņš.5-15







Ńņš. 15-21





Ńņš. 21-33



















Ńņš. 34-43









Ńņš. 44-45





Ńņš. 46-47













Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-79




I n h a l t s v e r z e i c h n i s

Vorwort 2

I. Beschreibung von Präpositionen 4

1. Die Definition der Präpositionen 15

2. Die durch die Präpositionen gekennzeichneten Verhältnisse 26

II. Funktionale Bedeutung der Präpositionen 34

1. Schlußbemerkungen 49

Literaturverzeich

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-80




Inhalt



6. Vorwort und Danksagung....................................3-4

7. Rund um die Werbung

Was heisst Werbung.......................................5-6

Formen der Werbung........................................7

Werbeziele........................................................8

Die Rhetorik in der Werbung............................9-10

Persuasive Funktion von Sprache....................11-14



8. Stilistische und lexikalish-grammatische Besonderheiten der Werbesprache



Stlistische Merkmale......................................14-16

Fachsprache................................................16-23

Jugensprache...............................................23-25

Dialekte.......................................................26-27

Anglizismen als stilistische Mittel in der Werbesprache...............................................27-32

Lexikalisch-grammatische Merkmale...............33-41

Grammatik in der Werbung............................41-46

9. Schlusswort. Werbesprache – eine besondere Inszenierung.....................................................47-49

10. Literaturverzeichnis............................................50-51



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-81











Plan

I. Introduction p. 1 - 2.

II.Chapter I.

General survey of the category of mood of the English and the Kyrghyz languages

a)History of English Mood š.Ē - 7.

b)English Mood p.8-29.

c)Kyrghyz Mood p. 30 - 41.

III.Chapter II.

The ways of rendering of English Oblique Moods into Kyrghyz

a)Subjunctive I p.41 - 42.

b)Subjunctive II p.42-53. ^Suppositional Mood p.53 - 54. d)Conditional Mood p.54 - 58

IV.Conclusion p.58 – 66

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-82




Inhalt



11. Vorwort und Danksagung....................................3-4

12. Rund um die Werbung

Was heisst Werbung.......................................5-6

Formen der Werbung........................................7

Werbeziele........................................................8

Die Rhetorik in der Werbung............................9-10

Persuasive Funktion von Sprache....................11-14



13. Stilistische und lexikalish-grammatische Besonderheiten der Werbesprache



Stlistische Merkmale......................................14-16

Fachsprache................................................16-23

Jugensprache...............................................23-25

Dialekte.......................................................26-27

Anglizismen als stilistische Mittel in der Werbesprache...............................................27-32

Lexikalisch-grammatische Merkmale...............33-41

Grammatik in der Werbung............................41-46

14. Schlusswort. Werbesprache – eine besondere Inszenierung.....................................................47-49

15. Literaturverzeichnis............................................50-51

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-83


Plan



Introduction

Chapter 1. Theoretical approaches to the study of stylistics:

a) General notes on style and stylistics;

b) Expressive means and stylistic devices;

c) Phonetic stylistic devices;

d) Lexical stylistic devices;

e) Syntactical stylistic devices;



Chapter 2. Interaction of dictionary and contextual logical meanings:



a) Metaphor is a result of outward similarity;

b) Different types of metaphors;

c) Orientational metaphors;

d) Ontological metaphors;

e) Container metaphors;

f) Personification;

g) Politics metaphors;

h) Structural metaphors;

i) Conventional metaphors;

j) Chemical metaphors;



Chapter 3. Metaphors used in the works of celebrated American Writers.



a) Creative activity of E. A. Poe and his stories;

b) Metaphors in E. A. Poe’s stories;

Conclusion

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-84


Plan:





Introduction……………………………………………………………………………1



I. Idioms are an essential part of the vocabulary of English……………………..4

1.1 Different aspects of idioms…………………………………………………….7

1.2 When and where to use idioms……………………………………………….10



II. American history reflected in idioms ………………………………………..12

2.1 Idioms reflecting the way of life on the American frontier…………………..13

2.2 Idioms reflecting events of the 17th – 18th – 19th – 20th century………………15



III. Idioms and Quizzes…………………………………………………………..19

3.1 Animal idioms with quizzes………………………………………………….19

3.2 Body idioms with quizzes……………………………………………………29

3.3 Food idioms with quizzes…………………………………………………….37

3.4 Activity for vocabulary development………………………………………...45



Conclusion……………………………………………………………………………50

Bibliography

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-85








Ļėąķ









Āāåäåķč充………………………………………………………...



2



Ćėąāą 1. Õóäīęåńņāåķķūé ģčš ļčńąņåė’…………………………..



5



Ćėąāą 2. Õóäīęåńņāåķķą’ ōčėīńīōč’ ā šīģąķå «Äąš»……………



28



Ćėąāą 3. Ģåņąļšīēą Āėąäčģčšą Ķąįīźīāą īņ “Äąšą”……………...



55



Ēąźėž÷åķč充……………………………………………………...



72



Ļščėīęåķč充……………………………………………………...



75



Ėčņåšąņ󹱅………………………………………………………….



79





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ŃĪÄÅŠĘĄĶČÅ





Āāåäåķč充………………………………………………………2

Ćėąāą 1. Åäčķńņāåķķī ńčķõšīķķī äčąõšīķč÷åńźīćī ąńļåźņīā čēó÷åķč’ ģåńņīčģåķč酅………………………………………..……………….…..…..4

§ 1. Ģåńņīčģåķčå ā ńčńņåģå ÷ąńņåé šå÷č ńīāšåģåķķīćī šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą………………………………………………………………………..….….5

§ 2. Čē čńņīščč ģåńņīčģåķč酅………………………………..….……..….27

ćėąāą II. Čńņīšč÷åńźčå źīģģåķņąščč ķą óšīźąõ šóńńźīćī ’ēūźą………………………………………………………………….…….……35

§ 1. Ēķą÷åķčå źīģģåķņąščåā…………………………………………….………35

§ 2. Żėåģåķņū źīģģåķņčšīāąķč’ ģåńņīčģåķč酅……………...………….38

§ 3. Ģåņīäč÷åńźčå šąēšąįīņźč ź ņåģąģ……………………………..………….51



Ēąźėž÷åķ腅…………………………………………………………………59

Įčįėčīćšąōč’……………………………………………………………..….…60

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-87






ŃĪÄÅŠĘĄĶČÅ

ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ

ĆĖĄĀĄ I

Āīļšīńū čēó÷åķč’ ćėąćīėīā ā ńīāšåģåķķīé ėčķćāčńņčźå

1.1 Ńņšóźņóšą ēķą÷åķč’ ćėąćīėüķīćī ńėīāą ā ńāåņå ļšīįėåģ ’ēūźīāīé ńčńņåģķīńņč.

1.2 Čēó÷åķčå ćėąćīėīā šå÷č ā ėčķćāčńņč÷åńźčõ šąįīņąõ

ĆĖĄĀĄ II

Ōóķźöčīķčšīāąķčå ćėąćīėīā šå÷č ā ļšīčēāåäåķč’õ Ą.Ļ. ×åõīāą

2.1 Ćėąćīėū, õąšąźņåščēóžłčå āķåųķžž ńņīšīķó šå÷č

2.2 Ćėąćīėū, õąšąźņåščēóžłčå ńīäåšęąķčå ģūńėč

2.3 Ćėąćīėū, õąšąźņåščēóžłčå źīģģóķčźąņčāķóž ńņīšīķó šå÷č.

2.4 Ćėąćīėū šå÷åāīćī āēąčģīäåéńņāč’ č źīķņąźņą

2.5 Ćėąćīėū šå÷åāīćī āēąčģīäåéńņāč’ č źīķņąźņą

2.6 Ćėąćīėū šå÷č ńī ēķą÷åķčåģ żģīöčīķąėüķīćī īņķīųåķč’ č īöåķźč.

ĒĄŹĖŽ×ÅĶČÅ.

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-88








C o n t e n t s





Introduction



Part I

The development of language



1.1 The beginning of language development

1.2 From vocalization to communicative expressions

1.3 Learning language: the first words

1.4 Dialogue as an arena for language development



Part II

Linguistic diversity and speech community



2.1 Language and regional variation: accent and dialect

2.2 Some examples from USA and Great Britain

2.3 Some examples from Kyrgyzstan (Kyrgyz dialects)

2.4 The social stratification of pronunciation



Part III Language learning and social interaction



3.1 Language and interaction

3.2 One small step for Genkind

3.3 Shifts in pronunciation according to situation and social levels

3.4 The impact of language

Conclusion

Bibliography

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-89



Plan



Introduction



Chapter I Historical background of phraseological units

§ 1 Phraseological units

§ 2 Criteria of stability and lack of motivation

§ 3 Classification of phraseological units

§ 4 Criteria of phraseological units

§ 5 Idioms, proverbs, sayings, quotations and their differences from phraseological units

§ 6 The functional classification of phraseological units



Chapter II The usage of phraseological units in English, Kyrghyz, and Russian languages

§ 1 English linguist’s points of view on phraseological units

§ 2 Russian linguist’s point of view on phraseological units

§ 3 Kyrghyz linguist’s point of view on phraseological units

§ 4 Comparison of phraseological units in English language

§ 5 Comparison of phraseological units in Kyrghyz language



Conclusion

Literature

Content

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-90






Inhalt



16. Vorwort und Danksagung....................................3-4

17. Rund um die Werbung

Was heisst Werbung.......................................5-6

Formen der Werbung........................................7

Werbeziele........................................................8

Die Rhetorik in der Werbung............................9-10

Persuasive Funktion von Sprache....................11-14



18. Stilistische und lexikalish-grammatische Besonderheiten der Werbesprache



Stlistische Merkmale......................................14-16

Fachsprache................................................16-23

Jugensprache...............................................23-25

Dialekte.......................................................26-27

Anglizismen als stilistische Mittel in der Werbesprache...............................................27-32

Lexikalisch-grammatische Merkmale...............33-41

Grammatik in der Werbung............................41-46

19. Schlusswort. Werbesprache – eine besondere Inszenierung.....................................................47-49

20. Literaturverzeichnis............................................50-51

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-91


Ńīäåšęąķčå

Āāåäåķčå ……………………………………………………………………… 2-5

I. Īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāīäą ’ēūźą ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé ėčņåšąņóšū

I.1. Ņåšģčķīėīćč’. Āīļšīńū ņåšģčķīėīćčč č āūįīšą ńėīā ļšč ļåšåāīäå 6-12

I.1.2. Ńėīāīńėīęåķčå ņåõķč÷åńźīćī ņåźńņą 13-15

I.1.3. Čķņåšķąöčīķąėčēąöč’ ņåšģčķīėīćčč ā ņåõķčźå 16-17 

I.1.4. Šīėü ļåšåāīä÷čźą ā šąēšąįīņźå ņåšģčķīėīćčč 18-20

I.2. Šąįīņą ńī ńėīāąšåģ ļšč ļåšåāīäå ķą šóńńźčé ’ēūź 21-24

I.3. Ōšąēåīėīćč÷åńźčå īįīšīņū 25-29

I.4. Ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčå īńīįåķķīńņč 30-35

I.5. Ńīźšąłåķč’ 36-37

I.6. Ņåõķč÷åńźą’ äīźóģåķņąöč’ č šåźėąģą 38

I.7. Ķåźīņīšūå īńīįåķķīńņč ńņčė’ ļšč ļåšåāīäå ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé

ėčņåšąņóšū 39-48.

II.2. Āīėīźķą čē šåņīšņū (čē źķčćč «Chemie ist Trumpf») 49-50

II. Īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāīäą ķåźīņīšūõ ņåźńņīā ķąó÷ķī-ņåõķč÷åńźīé ėčņåšąņóšū

II.1. Ėąóõõąģģåš-Ščēą ( čē ęóšķąėą “Energietechnik”-96 ) 51-52

II.3. Ļėąńņģąńńū, ļščģåķ’åģūå ķąčįīėåå ÷ąńņī ā ļšīčēāīäńņāå 

(čē ģīķīćšąōčč «Kunststoffe fur Industrie und Handwerk») 53-54

III. Ēąźėž÷åķčå 55-56

IV. Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū 57-58



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-92






Ćėąāą I. Īńķīāķūå ļšīįėåģū ļåšåāīäą.

1.1. Ąäåźāąņķīńņü.

1.2. Żźāčāąėåķņķīńņü…………………….2.

1.3. Źąėüźčšīāąķč充……………………15

1.4. Įóźāąėčēģ………………………………20

Ćėąāą II. ×ņī ņąźīå ļåšåāīäčģīńņü ā ļåšåāīäå.

2.1. Ļīķ’ņčå ī ļåšåāīäčģīńņ腅……………24

2.2. Āūńźąēūāąķčå ó÷åķķūõ………………………37.

2.3. Ńņčėü č ļåšåāī䅅………………………..43

2.4. Ėåźńčźą č ļåšåāī䅅……………………..55

2.5. Ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčå īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāī䱅………71

Ēąźėž÷åķčå.

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū.

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-93


Ćėąāą I. Īńķīāķūå ļšīįėåģū ļåšåāīäą.

1.5. Ąäåźāąņķīńņü.

1.6. Żźāčāąėåķņķīńņü…………………….2.

1.7. Źąėüźčšīāąķč充……………………15

1.8. Įóźāąėčēģ………………………………20

Ćėąāą II. ×ņī ņąźīå ļåšåāīäčģīńņü ā ļåšåāīäå.

2.6. Ļīķ’ņčå ī ļåšåāīäčģīńņ腅……………24

2.7. Āūńźąēūāąķčå ó÷åķķūõ………………………37.

2.8. Ńņčėü č ļåšåāī䅅………………………..43

2.9. Ėåźńčźą č ļåšåāī䅅……………………..55

2.10. Ćšąģģąņč÷åńźčå īńīįåķķīńņč ļåšåāī䱅………71

Ēąźėž÷åķčå.

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū.



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-94




Der Plan:

Einfuhrung S.3



1. Feldtheorien S.4



1.1. Feldvorstellungen S.6-12

1.1.1 Onomasiologische Felder S.6-7

1.1.2 Wortfelder, die paradigmatische und syntagmatische Bezieungen

beruecksichtigen. S.7-8

1.1.3 Vereinigung von Bezeichnungsbeziehungen und Bedeutungsbeziehungen

1.1.4 Komplexes Paradigma-„Semantisches Netz“ S.9-11

1.2. Funktional-semantische Felder S.12-13





2. Wortfelder der deutschen Phraseologismen S.14



2.1 Die in der deutschen Idiomatik haeufig erscheinende Lexeme S.14-19



2.1.1 Tiere als unentbehrlicher Bestandteil einer Idiomatik S.20-23



2.1.2 Der Koerperteil als Basislexem fuer die Fruchtbarkeit und Vielschichtigkeit

einer Idiomatik S.24-25



2.2 Idiomatische Felder nach Abdykaimowa O.S. S.26-29



2.3.1 Idiomatische Felder nach Hans Scheeman S.30



2.3.2 Felder der Qualitaet/Quantiraet/Modalitaet/Mass und des Grades S.31-33



2.3.3 Das Feld „Negation“ S.33-37



Schlussfolgerung S.38-40

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-95















Ļėąķ.

Āńņóļėåķčå. 1-3

Ćėąāą I Ļīķ’ņčå «Ļåšåāīä» 3-15

Ćėąāą II Ēķą÷åķč’ ’ēūźīāīé ļščšīäū õóäīęåńņāåķķīćī īįšąēą ā ėčņåšąņóšå. 15-16

§1. Šīėü ėåźńč÷åńźīé īźšąńźč ńėīāą č āīēģīęķīńņč åø ļåšåäą÷č 16-19

§2. Īįšąēķīå ēķą÷åķčå ńėīāą ā ńī÷åņąķč’õ ń äšóćčģč 19-20

§3. Ļåšåäą÷ą ńņčėčńņč÷åńźīé šīėč čćšū ńėīā 20-22

§4. Čńļīėüēīāąķčå ģīšōīėīćč÷åńźčõ ńšåäńņā ’ēūźą 22-23

§5. Šīėü ńčķņąźńč÷åńźčõ ńā’ēåé č õąšąźņåšą ńčķņąźńč÷åńźīćī ļīńņšīåķč’ äė’ ščņģą ļšīēū 23-28

§6. Ķåīįõīäčģīńņü čēįåćąņü ščōģū č ńņčõīņāīšķīćī šąēģåšą ā ļšīēå 

28-31

Ćėąāą III Ńīõšąķåķč’ ńģūńėīāīé åģźīńņč õóäīęåńņāåķķīćī ņåźńņą źąź ēąäą÷ą ļåšåāīäą. 31-33

Ćėąāą IV Ļšīįėåģą ńīõšąķåķč’ ķąöčīķąėüķīé īźšąńźč ā ļåšåāīäå õóäīęåńņāåķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū. 33-41

Ćėąāą V ×åšņū ļīäėčķķčźą ńā’ēąķķūå ńī āšåģåķåģ åćī ńīēäąķč’ č ēąäą÷ą ļåšåāīäą 41-48

Ćėąāą VI Īįłą’ ļīńņąķīāźą āīļšīńą ī ńīįėžäåķčč čķäčāčäóąėüķīćī ńāīåīįšąēčå ļīäėčķķčźą ā ļåšåāīäå 48-54



Ēąźėž÷åķčå.

Įčįėčīćšąōč’.

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700- 97















ŃĪÄÅŠĘĄĶČÅ









Āāåäåķčå









Ćėąāą I



Čē čńņīščč ģåņīäīā ļšåļīäąāąķč’ čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą









Ćėąāą II



Óńņķūé āāīäķūé źóšń ļšč īįó÷åķčč čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą ķą ķą÷ąėüķīģ żņąļå







ą)



Īįó÷åķčå ļšīčēķīųåķč’







į)



Īįó÷åķč’ ćīāīšåķč’







ā)



Īįó÷åķčå ÷ņåķčž







ć)



Īįó÷åķčå āīńļšč’ņčž ķą ńėóõ









Ćėąāą III



Ļščģåķåķčå šąēėč÷ķūõ ōīšģ č ģåņīäīā ļšč īįó÷åķčč čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą ķą ķą÷ąėüķīģ żņąļå







ą)



Āāåäåķčå ėåźńč÷åńźīćī č ćšąģģąņč÷åńźīćī ģąņåščąėą







į)



Čćšīāūå ģīģåķņū ļšč īįó÷åķčč čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą













Ēąźėž÷åķčå











Ėčņåšąņóšą







Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-98
ĻĖĄĶ





Āāåäåķčå







Ćėąāą I



Āīńļčņąņåėüķūé õąšąźņåš ļšåäģåņą, čķīńņšąķķūé ’ēūź







1.1



Ēķą÷åķčå ńīāšåģåķķīé ēąšóįåęķīé źóėüņóšū ķą óšīźąõ čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą ā āīńļčņąķčč ųźīėüķčźīā č åå šīėü ā šąēāčņčč ļąņščīņčēģą č ėčņåščąöčīķąėčēģą







1.2



Āīēģīęķīńņč óšīźīā čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą ā šąńųčšåķčč żźīėīćč÷åńźīćī č żźīķīģč÷åńźīćī źšóćīēīšą ó÷ąłčõń’







1.3



Āąęķą’ šīėü óšīźīā čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą ā ōīšģčšīāąķčč żńņåņč÷åńźčõ āźóńīā ųźīėüķčźīā č čõ āīēäåéńņāčå ķą ńņąķīāėåķčå šąēėč÷ķūõ źą÷åńņā õąšąźņåšą







Ćėąāą II



Īįłåīįšąēīāąņåėüķīå ēķą÷åķčå čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą źąź ļšåäģåņą čēó÷åķč’







2.1



ßēūź źąź ńšåäńņāą ōīšģčšīāąķč’ čķņåėėåźņą č šąēāčņč’ ļīēķąāąņåėüķīćī čķņåšåńą







2.2



Ļšīńāåņčņåėüńźīå ēķą÷åķčå ó÷åįķūõ ļšīćšąģģ ļī čķīńņšąķķīģó ’ēūźó īįłåīįšąēīāąņåėüķūõ ōīķäīā «Ńīšīń» č «Ģżżščģ» č äšóćčõ īšćąķčēąöčé







Ćėąāą III



Ńļåöčōčźą čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą ā āīńļčņąņåėüķīģ ļšīöåńńå







3.1



Ēķą÷åķčå čķīńņšąķķīćī ’ēūźą ā īšćąķč÷åķķīé āēąčģīńā’ēč īįó÷åķč’ č āīńļčņąķč’







3.2



Šīėü čńļīėüēīāąķč’ ģåęļšåäģåņķūõ ńā’ēåé ļšč īįó÷åķčč čķīńņšąķķīģó ’ēūźó ā āīńļčņąņåėüķīģ īįšąēīāąņåėüķīģ ļšīöåńńå











Ļščėīęåķčå











ēąźėž÷åķčå







Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-99


Ńīäåšęąķčå:

Āāåäåķčå:





Ćėąāą 1. Ģķīćīēķą÷ķīńņü ńėīāą ā ’ēūźå č šå÷腅………………………………………………………………….

1.1 Čēģåķåķčå ēķą÷åķč’ ńėīāą č šąēāčņčå ģķīćīēķą÷ķīńņ腅…………………………………………………….……………

1.2 Ņčļū ēķą÷åķčé ģķīćīēķą÷ķīćī ńėīāą……………………………………

1.3 Šå÷åāą’ ģķīćīēķą÷ķīńņü ńėīāą…………………………………………..

1.4 Šąēšåųåķčå ģķīćīēķą÷ķīńņč č āčäū źīķņåźńņą………………………...



Ćėąāą 2. Ļšīįėåģą źīķņåźńņą……………………………………………………...

2.1 Ēąāčńčģīńņü ńėīāą īņ źīķņåźńņą………..………………………………..

2.2 Ļšīįėåģą źėąńńčōčźąöčč źīķņåźńņą……………………………………..

2.3 Ōóķźöčč źīķņåźńņą………………………………………….…………….



Ćėąāą 3. Ńņšóźņóšķī – ńåģąķņč÷åńźą’ õąšąźņåščńņčźą ģķīćīēķą÷ķūõ ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā ńīāšåģåķķīģ ąķćėčéńźīģ ’ēūźå

3.1 Ńåģąķņč÷åńźčå źīģļīķåķņū ģķīćīēķą÷ķūõ ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ ā ńņšóźņóšå ’ēūźą

3.2 Ńåģąķņč÷åńźą’ ńņšóźņóšą źą÷åńņāåķķūõ ļščėąćąņåėüķūõ: great, little, small, high, low, straight



Ēąźėž÷åķčå..

Įčįėčīćšąōč’

Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-101






ĪĆĖĄĀĖÅĶČÅ

Ńņš. ĀĀÅÄÅĶČÅ ............................................................................2-6

Ćėąāą I. Īįšąē ÷čķćčńõąķą ā šīģąķå Ā.Ć. ßķą «×ČĶĆČŃÕĄĶ». Īńķīāķūå õóäīęåńņāåķķūå ńšåäńņāą ńīēäąķč’ īįšąēą ēąāīåāąņåė’ ģčšą ...................................................7-24

Ćėąāą II. Īįšąē ×čķćčńõąķą ā šīģąķå Č.Ź.Źąėąųķčźīāą

«ĘÅŃŅĪŹČÉ ĀÅŹ»...............................................25-37

Ćėąāą III. Ļīāåńņü ×. Ąéņģąņīāą «ĮÅĖĪÅ ĪĮĖĄŹĪ

×ČĶĆČŃÕĄĶĄ»...................................................38-48

ĒĄŹĖŽ×ÅĶČÅ ..................................................................... 49-51

ŃĻČŃĪŹ ČŃĻĪĖÜĒĪĀĄĶĶĪÉ ĖČŅÅŠĄŅÓŠŪ......................................................................52-55



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-102






Īćėąāėåķčå.

Āāåäåķč充……………………………………………………..



3.





1. Ļńčõīėīćč÷åńźčå ąńļåźņū čķķīāąöčīķķūõ ņåõķīėīćčé ā ļšīōåńńčīķąėüķīģ īįšąēīāąķčč.







1.1 Īńķīāķūå ļńčõīėīćč÷åńźčå ļščķöčļū ńīāšåģåķķīćī īįšąēīāąķč’…………………………………………………………….





6



1.2. Ķåźīņīšūå ąńļåźņū äčąćķīńņč÷åńźīćī īįåńļå÷åķčå ó÷åįķīćī ēąķ’ņč’………………………………………………………….





11





2. Ļåäąćīćč÷åńźčå īńķīāū ā čńļīėüēīāąķčč čķķīāąöčīķķūõ ņåõķīėīćčé ā ńčńņåģå īįšąēīāąķčč.







2.2 Īįłåå ļīķ’ņč’ īį čķķīāąöč腅………………………….



28



2.2 Čķķīāąöčīķķūå ņåõķīėīćčč ā īįšąēīāąķč腅…………….



40



2.3 Ńīāšåģåķķūå čķōīšģąöčīķķūå č źīģģóķčźąöčīķķūå ņåõķīėīćčč ā īįó÷åķčč................................................................…….



47



2.4 Čķķīāąöčīķķūå ļīäõīäū ź īšćąķčēąöčč īįó÷åķč’........……



50



2.5 Źščņåščč żōōåźņčāķīńņč ļšīōåńńčīķąėüķīćī īįó÷åķč’..…



53





3. Čķķīāąöčīķķą’ äå’ņåėüķīńņü ā ļåäąćīćč÷åńźīģ źīėėåźņčāå ļšč ļšåļīäąāąķčč ņåõķč÷åńźčõ äčńöčļėčķ.







3. 1.Čķķīāąöčīķķą’ äå’ņåėüķīńņü ā ļåäąćīćč÷åńźīģ źīėėåźņčāå.



57



3.2.Ńółķīńņü, ļščķöčļū ļšīåźņčšīāąķč’ č ņåķäåķöčč šąēāčņč’ ńīāšåģåķķūõ īįšąēīāąņåėüķūõ ņåõķīėīćčé........................……...



60



3.3.Čķķīāąöčīķķūå ņåõķīėīćčč ļīāūųåķč’ źāąėčōčźąöčč ńļåöčąėčńņīā ļšīōåńńčīķąėüķīćī īįšąēīāąķč’..................................



67



3.4.Źīģļüžņåščēąöč’ ó÷åįķīćī ļšīöåńńą................................…..



69



3.5.Źščņåščč żōōåźņčāķīńņč ļåäąćīćč÷åńźčõ ņåõķīėīćčé..........



72



3.6.Īńīįåķķīńņč źīķņšīė’ ēķąķčé, ķąāūźīā č óģåķčé ó÷ąłčõń’



77





Ēąźėž÷åķčå.............................................................................…….



79



Įčįėčīćšąōč÷åńźčé ńļčńīź.........................................…….........



80





Čģ’ ōąéėą 2700-103






Āāåäåķčå . . . . . . . . . . . 3

Ćėąāą I . Żāīėžöč’ āēąčģīīņķīųåķčé ėč÷ķīńņč č īįłåńņāą ā ļšīčēāåäåķč’õ «Ąķņčėčäåš», «Ćäå ńõīäčėīńü ķåįī ń õīėģąģč», «Īņńņąāųčé»

. . . . . . . . . . . . 8

Ćėąāą II. Ųåńņčäåń’ņķčźč ā ļīāåńņč Ā. Ģąźąķčķą «Īäčķ č īäķą»

. . . . . . . . . . . . 35

Ćėąāą III Ņīņąėčņąšķą’ ńčńņåģą ļīä ńóäīģ ā. Ģąźąķčķą ķą ļščģåšå ļšīčēāåäåķčé «Ąķäåćšąóķä čėč ćåšīé ķąųåćī āšåģåķč», «Įóźāą «Ą».

. . . . . . . . . . . . 49



Ēąźėž÷åķčå . . . . . . . . . 60



Įčįėčīćšąōč’ . . . . . . . . 64



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2500-104


źīķņąźņķūé ņåėåōīķ 0772 66 07 68

e-mail: referatkg@mail.ru



ŃĪÄÅŠĘĄĶČÅ

Āāåäåķčå........................................................................................... 3

Ćėąāą 1 Ļšīįėåģą ļåäąćīćč÷åńźīćī šóźīāīäńņāą ļšīōåńńčīķąėü­
ķūģ ńąģīāīńļčņąķčåģ ńņóäåķņīā ā ńčńņåģå óķčāåšńč­
ņåņńźīćī īįšąēīāąķč’............................................................ 13

1.1 Ąķąėčē čńńėåäīāąķčé ļī ļšīįėåģå ļåäąćīćč÷åńźīćī šóźī­
āīäńņāą ļšīōåńńčīķąėüķūģ ńąģīāīńļčņąķčåģ ńņóäåķņīā
óķčāåšńčņåņą.......................................................................... 13

1.2 Ńółķīńņü ļåäąćīćč÷åńźīćī šóźīāīäńņāą ļšīōåńńčīķąėü­
ķūģ ńąģīāīńļčņąķčåģ ńņóäåķņīā ā óńėīāč’õ óķčāåšńčņåņ­
ńźīé ļīäćīņīāźč........................................................................ 41

1.3 Ģīäåėčšīāąķčå ļšīöåńńą óļšąāėåķč’ ļšīōåńńčīķąėüķūģ
ńąģīāīńļčņąķčåģ įóäółčõ čķęåķåšīā-ļåäąćīćīā............... 61

Āūāīäū................................................................................................ 75

Ćėąāą 2 Żźńļåščģåķņąėüķūå čńńėåäīāąķč’ ļóņåé č óńėīāč’ żō­
ōåźņčāķīńņü ļåäąćīćč÷åńźīćī šóźīāīäńņāą ļšīōåńńčī­
ķąėüķūģ ńąģīāīńļčņąķčåģ ńņóäåķņīā ā ńčńņåģå óķčāåš­
ńčņåņńźīćī īįšąēīāąķč’.......................................................... 77

2.1 Āū’āėåķčå čńõīäķīćī óšīāķ’ īšćąķčēąöčč ļšīōåńńčīķąėü­
ķīćī ńąģīāīńļčņąķč’ ńņóäåķņīā óķčāåšńčņåņą.................... 77

2.2 Ņåõķīėīćč’ óļšąāėåķč’ ļšīöåńńīģ ļšīōåńńčīķąėüķīćī ńą­
ģīāīńļčņąķč’ ńņóäåķņīā óķčāåšńčņåņą 92

2.3 Õīä č šåēóėüņąņ żźńļåščģåķņąėüķīé šąįīņū ļī īšćąķčēą­
öčč ļåäąćīćč÷åńźīćī šóźīāīäńņāą ļšīōåńńčīķąėüķūģ ńą­
ģīāīńļčņąķčåģ ńņóäåķņīā óķčāåšńčņåņą 104

Āūāīäū................................................................................................ 140

Ēąźėž÷åķčå............................................................................................... 145

Ńļčńīź čńļīėüēīāąķķīé ėčņåšąņóšū....................................................... 149

Ļščėīęåķč’....................................................................................... 158



Čģ’ ōąéėą 2500-105




Īćėąāėåķčå

Ćėąāą 1. Ļńčõīėīćī-ļåäąćīćč÷åńźčå ļšīįėåģū ćīņīāķīńņč šåįåķźą ź ųźīėüķīģó īįó÷åķčž 

1.1. Ļńčõīėīćč÷åńźą’ č ōčēčīėīćč÷åńźą’ ćīņīāķīńņü šåįåķźą ź ųźīėüķīģó īįó÷åķčž źąź ļåäąćīćč÷åńźą’ ļšīįėåģą 

1.2. Šīėü ńåģüč ā ōīšģčšīāąķčč ćīņīāķīńņč šåįåķźą ź ųźīėüķīģó īįó÷åķčž 

1.3. Šīėü äåņńźīćī ńąäą ā ōīšģčšīāąķčč ćīņīāķīńņč šåįåķźą ź ųźīėüķīģó īįó÷åķčž 

1.4. Ļīäćīņīāźą äåņåé ź ųźīėå ā Źūšćūēńņąķå

Ćėąāą 2. Ļńčõīėīćč÷åńźą’ ćīņīāķīńņü šåįåķźą ź īįó÷åķčž ā ųźīėå

2.1. Ļīēķąāąņåėüķūå ļšīöåńńū

2.1.1. Āķčģąķčå

2.1.2. Ļąģ’ņü

2.1.3. Āīīįšąęåķčå

2.2. Ņāīš÷åńźčå ńļīńīįķīńņč č čõ šąēāčņčå

2.3. Šąēāčņčå ķąāūźīā ó÷åįķīé äå’ņåėüķīńņč

2.4. Ōīšģčšīāąķčå čķņåšåńą ź ÷ņåķčž

Ćėąāą 3. Ļšąźņč÷åńźčå čćšū äė’ ļīäćīņīāźč šåįåķźą ź ųźīėüķīģó īįó÷åķčž

Ēąźėž÷åķčå

Ńļčńīź ėčņåšąņóšū





Čģ’ ōąéėą 2500-106